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Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

Phone: (405) 744-4065
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E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for July 20, 2019

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Increased Insect Pressure Has Livestock Itching
  • Mesonet Weather
  • The Basics of Wicking 
  • Livestock Marketing
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Evaluating Hay Quality
  • Market Monitor

 

(upbeat music)

Increased Insect Pressure Has Livestock Itching

>>> Good morning and welcome to SUNUP, I'm Dave Deken.

We had a pretty wet spring across the state,

which means that fly and mosquito numbers

are gonna be up.

This morning on the show, we're gonna be taking a look

at some ways that producers can help

their cattle and horses make it through a steamy summer.

With more information on that,

here's Extension Livestock Entomologist, Justin Talley.

>>> And so, in particular, what we wanna think about is

the particular flies on cattle right now.

We have three main species that we're worried about

getting on cattle.

One is our stable flies that are normally biting them

on the legs, and then what they particularly do

cause a lot of pain for the cattle, so it'll cause them

to bunch up.

And then we have horn flies that are typical in Oklahoma

that we see every year, that are a smaller fly

that cluster up on the back and side.

They can cause a lot of production losses if left untreated.

And then, lastly, we do have a fly in Oklahoma

that can transmit a particular pathogen

the causes pink eye, and that's known as face fly.

>>> With the face fly, is there anything that can be done

about the possible transmission of pink eye?

>>> One of the best things that are out there

for face flies in general is to put an insecticide ear tag

in the cattle, and one that's usually

in the pyrethroid class because it'll not only,

it could kill those flies,

but it could also repel those flies.

The other thing is, is just some preventative things

that if you have pink eye within your herd,

just make sure you're taking some proper sanitation

practices when you're handling each animal

so you're not transmitting that pathogen,

which is a bacteria.

And so it's a bacteria that causes pink eye,

known as moraxella bovis.

And once you get that bacteria within your herd,

sometimes it can just be transmitted from animal to animal,

from grass to animal, from just handling the animals.

And then flies can be a small component of that.

In particular, face flies are specialists because they have

a structure that allows them to scratch the eye

a little bit better more so than a housefly would.

And so that's why they're better at transmitting

the pathogen that causes pink eye.

And, in general, we're not too worried about pink eye

transmitted by houseflies.

You'll see house flies out there,

but if you see a lot of the flies are

in and around the face and you start seeing a higher

occurrence of pink eye, then you probably need to

implement some kind of fly control.

>>> There's also been some word about the possibility

of some mosquito-borne...

>>> Yeah so, what we certainly need to be concerned with

is this year's amount of mosquitoes that are out there.

In particular for horse owners, you need to make sure

you're up-to-date on your boosters with

the West Nile Virus vaccinations.

And we have mosquitoes that are not only active

year to year, but we'll probably have an abundance

of mosquitoes, especially as it warms up

and dries out a little bit.

Because the excessive rain, there's not a lot of mosquitoes,

but when that excessive rain starts to dry down

and there's pockets of standing water, then that's when

our mosquito population can really be prolific

and cause some issues with West Nile Virus,

especially among horses.

>>> Is there anything that producers can do

to control the mosquitoes aside from just flipping

a bird feeder or whatever?

>>> Yeah so, the biggest thing about mosquitoes

in and around horse operations is that,

try to find those breeding sources.

So standing water, if there's standing water,

you need to either treat that water with a larvicide

or get rid of that water.

Think about where the mosquitoes could be resting.

And so, if you have a lot of weeds, broadleaf weeds,

around your barn, your horse barn, around horse stalls,

then it's harboring mosquito resting sites where.

And a lot of people aren't thinking about that

because they don't necessarily see it, and it's really

ineffective to treat those other than just

getting rid of the weeds.

>>> Okay, thank you very much.

Dr. Justin Talley, Extension Livestock Entomologist

with Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Welcome to the Mesonet Weather Report.

I'm Wes Lee.

It was another very hot stretch for Oklahomans

to endure this past week.

Many parts of western Oklahoma reached 100 on Tuesday

as indicated by the red in this state map.

Those that didn't reach

the century mark were not far behind.

The temperatures alone would be more tolerable

if it wasn't for the added humidity

left over from all the spring rain.

This chart shows

the smooth average maximum relative humidity levels

as compared to the long term average.

Every day, above the zero line

would be higher than what was expected.

There has been only two weeks all year

that came in below the line.

One in late March, and another in middle April.

Adding temperature and humidity gives us

the heat index, or felt temperature.

On July 16th, the numbers reached the oppressive teen range.

The highest was recorded at 116 at Antlers,

but Tishomingo was just one degree behind.

A break is not expected until early next week.

There is one crop, cotton,

that is appreciative of this heat.

Due to a wet, cool start,

it needed a heat boost to catch up.

This degree day table for Altus shows

that is exactly what has happened.

On Tuesday, they reached 1175,

right in line with the five year average.

Now here's Gary, reminiscing about past rainfall.

>>> Thanks, Wes, and good morning everyone.

Well, I'm afraid we have something to discuss

that we've really been able to avoid

for the last couple of months,

and that's the US drought monitor.

So let's get straight to that new map and see what we have.

Now it's gonna be really hard to see,

but if you get really, really close to your TV,

you can just tell a little bit of that yellow,

abnormally dry color down in far southwest Oklahoma,

but it is a start of something

that we're gonna have to watch over the next few weeks

now that we're into the heat

and the rainfall has pretty much shut off.

Now speaking of that rainfall,

if we look at the Mesonet map for the last 30 days,

we see eastern Oklahoma has generally had

some really good rains from four

to as many as 10 inches in some places.

So, good rains across that area.

As you go further to the west though,

it drops down to two inches or less in most locations.

Now if you look at that same time period

for the percent of normal rainfall,

what we would normally expect for this time of the year,

the last 30 days, we can see again

some above normal rainfall across

much of the eastern third of the state.

But as you go up to the west,

we drop down below 75% of normal.

So this dry weather and heat is having

an impact on the soil moisture.

If we look at the 10 inch fractional water index,

one is basically wet; zero is all the way dry.

We see the areas across western Oklahoma,

that soil is down to the very dry conditions.

Less than 0.2, down across southwest Oklahoma.

And then scattered around other areas,

including the Oklahoma Panhandle.

So, that soil is being dried out as well.

Impacts from the lack of rainfall

and the tremendous heat that we're seeing

over the last week or so.

We are expected to get a little bit cooler early next week,

but we'll have to see what happens from that point

to see if we need to put more color

on this drought monitor map,

or maybe back it off a little bit.

But we'll keep an eye on it.

(festive country music)

 And that's it for this time.

We'll see you next time on the Mesonet weather report.

 

The Basic of Wicking

>>> We're in the dog days of summer

which means that Johnsongrass is tall and full.

And Alex, why is Johnsongrass so hard to kill?

>>> Well, I can show it to you, why so hard to kill.

See, that's the secret of the Johnsongrass.

Johnsongrass has rhizomes.

Other grasses may not have this structure.

And what this is, is a reserve organ

that stay underground in the soil.

And what happen is, all the time

that we spray something, or you mow, or you graze,

what's gonna happen is, the plants are gonna come up back

from new shoots, as you can see here.

Bringing it up, again, more stems and leaves.

So that's why it's so hard to kill.

You kill, and will come back,

because it has the innards down there.

>>> So, when it comes to management,

obviously there's a lot of different options

that producers have to choose from.

Let's kind of talk about

some of those (speaker drowned out by wind).

>>> Okay.

I would start with grazing as management

to control Johnsongrass.

It's pretty common, when you see a kind of a pasture

that's being inconceivably grazed,

where there's no Johnsongrass.

But you look just over the fence,

and there are some Johnsongrass.

That happens because, if you keep the cattle there

all the time, this is an ice cream plant.

The cattles love to graze Johnsongrass.

So what happen is, as soon as come new shoots,

the animal is gonna come and graze them.

And so, we started to starve the rhizomes,

and the plants should disappear over time.

So, the second option would be mowing.

If you constantly keep mowing,

when we see that the new leaves and you keep mowing,

you are going to be doing the same, starving the rhizomes.

But mowing might be expensive, also.

So that's where we can go with some chemical,

and control by applying some herbicides.

There are different herbicides

labeled to control Johnson grass.

However, we know that the glyphosate is a very, I would say

economical way to control, but also can harm

for instance the Bermuda grass,

the other warm season desirable (mumbles) to have there.

So that's where I think that wicking Johnson grass

with glyphosate is a very good and viable option.

>>> So let's talk about that, what exactly is wicking?

>>> Well wicking, I would say that's a selective way

to control a specific weed.

For instance, as I mentioned as you can see here

we have the Bermuda grass and also have the Johnson grass.

If you come here and we spray the herbicide

in this case, glyphosate,

you harm our Bermuda grass as well when you don't want that.

So there is a method that by a sponge or a rope

where we are going to be just delivering that chemical

the herbicide is specific to the Johnson grass.

That's what wicking, in simple words, is.

>>> All right, thanks Alex.

For more information on controlling Johnson grass

using herbicides

here's our extension weed specialist, Misha Manuchehri.

>>> Yeah so, there's a number of herbicides

that we can apply post emergence

and Bermuda grass control Johnson grass.

One of the more effective products is glyphosate.

However, it also can injure the Bermuda

so we're always trying to balance weed control

with not injuring our target crop or plant.

So one thing that we can do

to minimize the injury with Bermuda

but still have that effective glyphosate is to wick it on.

So it's a very manual process.

There's all different kinds of applicators.

Folks make their own; they can purchase them.

Usually you see a rope or some kind of sponge

and basically you fill up a tube

it's usually made of PVC pipe with your solution.

Those rates start at a 1/3 glyphosate to water

so a 33% solution and you mix it up in that tube

you let those wicks get concentrated

and you touch the plants.

Glyphosate moves in living tissue so once we have contact

we get absorption and movement.

So, one thing, once you have your solution

and it's not dripping from your wicks or your sponge

if you don't have ground that's really uniform

you want to have a good concentration

that is just going on to plants

not dripping all over your field.

And then another thing to take into consideration

is past direction.

So a lot of research has documented that more than one pass

will actually increase efficacy which makes sense.

We wipe one way.

Sometimes we might want to kind of offset and go diagonally

or the opposite direction so that we get good contact.

And for more information

on detailed herbicide management practices

for Johnson grass control and wicking

go to sunup.okstate.edu

(upbeat, energetic music)

 

Livestock Marketing

>>> It's summertime

and that means Derrell's been on adventures

And Derrell you've been all over the country

how do conditions look where you've been traveling?

>>> Well over the last month or so

I've traveled from here up through Wyoming into Montana

little bit over into Idaho

and then back across Nebraska on the way home, you know.

I guess the word that comes to mind of course is green.

We've had lots of moisture.

Forage conditions look very good in many places.

So much so that hay production has been a challenge

and that's probably the biggest thing I've seen.

Hay production's been delayed in many cases

because of excess moisture.

Challenges getting it up both quantity and quality

is going to be a little bit of an issue.

Corn conditions that I've seen in

you know, central and western Nebraska vary a lot

from just above knee high to shoulder high

so we're going to see a widely variable corn crop

as we reach or move towards maturity

here later in the summer.

>>> As we are here in the Southern Great Plains,

it is green and they're cutting hay right now.

Do you think that hay stocks will remain

you know, moderate throughout the season?

>>> You know there's a lot of concern right now

about hay conditions.

We started the year with very low hay stocks nationally

and, you know, the dairy industry

is probably the first to be concerned.

They're concerned about both quantity and quality of hay.

And there have been lots of challenges in many regions

in terms of hay production

so I think it's something we have to keep an eye on.

Beef cattle of course use a wider variety

of qualities of hay

so it'll be something we have to really watch

from a nutritional standpoint next fall.

>>> Had some good news last week in the price of cattle.

Had a little bit of positive movement there.

What's driving that?

>>> Well I think there's several things going again.

This cattle market's kind of trying to find some direction.

Some of it's coming out of the fact

that both the live and feeder cattle futures

have gone through a fairly serious correction.

Arguably, a little bit overdone

so it was probably time for a little bit of bounce in that.

You know, feeder cattle, again, with the corn market

kinda weighing on it, and this futures market

sot a weighing on it, have moved counter seasonally lower,

especially for the heavy feeder cattle.

They normally move higher through the summer

and peak in late July or in August.

We may be back on track to see a little bit of that

seasonal pattern here as we go forward.

Fed cattle, you know, it's probably a little early to be

sure we've got a summer low in,

that usually doesn't happen til late August or Labor Day,

but it could be.

And so, I think, again, we kinda watch going forward.

We still got some hot summer doldrums here to get through,

you know, from that standpoint before we can

really see our way into kinda

what those fall markets are gonna look like.

>>> Well, you did talk about that a little bit

and let's drill down a little bit

to the recent part of it, July fourth,

we've made it through there.

How does beef look as we move forward?

>>> You know, from a demand standpoint,

it's also been a bit of a challenge

and certainly an unknown this year.

By and large, we've not had good grilling weather this year.

Summer seems to finally be here,

but it's only just recently arrived.

So you know boxed beef prices peaked early in April,

dropped seasonally, and they're normally dropping

this time of the year and actually they're a little

bit above where they were last year

at this point in time, at least for choice prices.

Select prices have weakened more.

We've got a counter seasonally larger choice

select spread going on right now.

So, again, there's a lot of uncertainty.

The latest trade data was generally positive,

exports were about equal to last year

for the first time this year, not being lower.

But again, on a product by product basis,

there's still a lot of uncertainty about

what's going on in those markets so,

I think all of these cattle and beef markets

are kind of looking for a little sense of direction here

through the heat of the summer.

>>> Globally speaking, is there any opportunity for growth

in the beef markets?

>>> Well, I think all of the protein markets are

still waiting to kinda see how this situation

in China plays out, with African swine fever.

Clearly, there's gonna be a deficit of protein in China.

The pork industry in the U.S. continues to expand.

We've got large supplies and we've been anticipating,

even with the tariffs in place,

that there would be more demand from China.

Hasn't really materialized,

at least not in a sustained way yet.

So, we've got some extra pork weighing on the market.

Right now in the U.S. wholesale pork values are weakening.

That's probably adding some pressure.

That said, at some point in time, there is going to be

more direct and indirect opportunities for protein markets,

including beef, as a result of the situation in China.

>>> Okay, thank you very much, Darryl Peel,

livestock marketing specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Last week we visited with you on the Cow Calf Corner

about the impact of an Oklahoma heat dome might have on

reproductive capabilities of your cow herd.

I thought this week and again next week,

we'd go into more detail

about what impact these high ambient temperatures

have on cattle.

First of all, this week, let's look at the male side

or the impact of consistent hot summer days

might have on bull and bull fertility.

Research has been done for a number of years,

clear back into the 60s,

but more recently here in Oklahoma,

some work was done in the late 70s, early 80s,

looking specifically at the impact of heat stress

on bulls and bull fertility.

If you look at this particular graphic,

this shows basically what happens when a set of bulls,

half of which are left in a normal, very comfortable,

73 degree environment, over the 16 week

period of this study,

compared with the other half of the bulls

that were exposed to, each day, eight hours of 95 degrees.

And then the other 16 hours of the day,

they had roughly 87 degrees around them.

Those that had that hot temperature

consistently for eight weeks,

you can see what happens to their semen quality

and therefore the bull fertility.

It drops consistently from having semen motility

of up around 75%, clear down to less than 50%.

Once those bulls were put back into a

very comfortable 73 degree environment,

it took them eight more weeks to return to normal fertility

as compared to their counterparts that were left

in that comfortable environment.

So, this tells me, again, that we wanna really think about

breeding seasons for cattle in Oklahoma.

From the bull side, we know that heat stress

can reduce bull fertility

and have a real impact on the percentage of cows

that get bred in that period of time.

Plus, if we have that heat stress that causes some insult

to that bull, then it's gonna take another eight weeks

for him to return to total normalcy,

in terms of his fertility.

I'll emphasize to you

that this is not an all-or-none situation.

It's a change in the percentage

of the cows that these bulls get bred

in that particular period of time.

But it's a percentage that goes in the wrong direction

and can certainly affect our bottom line.

Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again next week,

as we'll visit more about the impact

of heat stress on beef cattle here in Oklahoma.

 

Evaluating Hay Quality

>>> Well, it's starting to dry out across the state,

but we're still feeling the effects of the rain

and the recent flooding.

And Kris, some of the effects that from is from hay.

>>> Sure, so our hay producers took a lot longer

to get into the hay fields for the first cutting,

just because the fields were so wet.

Which has now backed up their second cutting,

and so our horse owners really need

to think about maybe their hay supplies

or their normal supplier may not

actually produce as much this year as in years passed.

>>> [Kurtis] And what about the hay that had already been cut

that had maybe been laying out in the fields?

We all saw pictures of flooding,

just all the way up to the tops of them.

>>> Oh, sure. I know when I was driving around,

you would see hay bales that were half-submerged

in the flood waters.

And so we really encourage you do not feed those

as a food supply for animals.

We don't know what contaminants

are actually in those flood waters.

So all that moisture content, too,

and the fermentation that would have taken place,

and the spoilage.

Those aren't gonna be suitable feed stuffs anymore.

>>> [Kurtis] And even though they're not suitable feed stuffs,

they're not actually not really safe for humans as well,

if they're affecting the animal,

they'll probably affect us as well.

>>> Well, yeah.

Even if we're not talking about hay that was saturated,

like standing half-way deep,

even if it was really really wet,

you probably have a pretty good chance

there were molds in there.

Spores that can really affect animal health,

so you may see decreased performance with them

if they're trying to eat moldy feed.

If animals are inside, moldy feed,

that's really hard on their respiratory systems,

and yes, our humans,

if you're having to handle that a lot,

it can affect you too.

>>> [Kurtis] In regards of disposal of that hay

that's just laying out in the field, what should people do?

>>> So that's a good question because you know,

right now, we're harvesting hay,

and they need to put those round bales up

and need to get those old spoiled bales out of the way.

So there's a couple different avenues.

It actually is good compost material,

so you can think about composting that hay.

We'd encourage people to maybe

even find some folks that need hay for composting.

You know, our bigger farms that compost their mortalities,

this is a great use of that carbon source to help them out.

Also, for construction where they're trying to deal

with erosion, roadways, etc.

So there actually may be people out there

that find some value in your spoiled hay.

So because of all of our strange weather conditions

this year,

people really do need to be thinking about their hay supply,

even if you weren't in the middle of the flooding zone.

So just my own personal story,

the gentleman that I get my hay from every year,

I picked up some hay 'cause I knew,

it's probably time to start calling ahead,

and he has nowhere near the amount of hay

already put up this time of year now,

as compared to years in the past.

So people really need to think about that,

and don't just put it off until later,

when you have to buy your hay supply through the winter.

You may need to be thinking about increased prices, supply,

and certainly as we go down the road,

we may need to think about alternative forage sources.

>>> [Kurtis] Alrighty, thanks Kris.

Kris Hiney, extension Equine Specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> They're moving seed wheat behind us and Kim,

we're in that time between harvest and planting,

how are things looking with Oklahoma wheat right now?

>>> Well if you look at what normally happens

with Oklahoma wheat in June, July, and August,

we normally sell 50-60% of that wheat off,

maybe even up to 70% some years.

So producers are looking at when to move that,

you go back to the price the last couple weeks,

we got a 45 cent price run-up,

then we took about 40 cents off of it,

that's the kind of volatility we're gonna have,

and to understand what's happening there,

you gotta go over to the Black Sea area.

Russia, Ukraine, both in their early harvest.

Russia's wheat's coming in 13-plus protein,

maybe a little high.

Russia sold wheat into Egypt slightly higher,

about 20 cents higher price.

And so a lot's going on in the market,

and a lot of decisions are being made.

When do I sell my wheat,

and how much wheat do I plant next year?

>>> [Dave] With the potential smaller

corn-crop coming up,

is there potential for some of this wheat

to be going into cattle production?

>>> A lot depends on what happens with this corn.

You know there's a big uncertainty on

how many corn planted acres we got.

Big uncertainty on what is the crop condition of the corn.

Just how much corn will we produce?

The market's all up in arms about that,

'cause nobody really knows until USDA comes out

with their next report.

So that creates uncertainty in the corn market,

it also creates uncertainty in wheat.

But if we can lose some corn production,

we will move some wheat,

and we need to move some wheat into that feed market,

that'd be good for us.

>>> [Dave] And of course soy beans

are growing across the state right now.

It's been a year since the tariffs

with China were announced.

How are we with not only negotiations,

but also the price?

>>> Well there's a lot of uncertainty there,

but you notice what I said about Russia

and some of that wheat in Egypt, higher price.

Well part of that was their ocean transportation's

about 4 1/2 cents a bushel less

than it was a couple months ago.

What we've seen because of the China deal,

China has the lowest increase in their economy in 26 years.

If you look around the world,

a lot of product is still in the warehouse.

They say that there's excess road transportation,

rail transportation, and ocean transportation.

So you got lower transportation rates.

Well that helps us move this stuff

over to our overseas markets.

>>> How long can Oklahoma producers

expect this to go on financially?

>>> Well if you look on the wheat production,

you look at what the prediction is over the next 10 years,

it's an average price of about $5 per bushel.

So you're looking at relatively low prices for the next...

Now will it be $5?

No. It might average that,

that means we're gonna have some low fours,

we're gonna probably have some high sixes,

maybe even sevens in there.

But if you can't produce wheat for $5 a bushel,

you might oughta try to produce something else.

>>> [Dave] Okay, thank you very much.

Kim Anderson, Grain Marketing Specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Well that does it for us this week on SUNUP.

If there was something on the show that

you'd like to learn more about,

visit our website: sunup.okstate.edu.

And while you're there,

check out our social media.

I'm Dave Deken.

Remember, Oklahoma agriculture starts at SUNUP.

(exit music)

 

 

 

 

 

 

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