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Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

Phone: (405) 744-4065
FAX: (405) 744-5738
E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for May 25, 2019

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Flooding & crops
  • Nutrient loss from flooding
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Cattle & flooding
  • Vet Scripts
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Market Monitor

 

(gentle instrumental music)

>>> Hello everyone, and welcome to SUNUP, I'm Lyndall Stout.

It's been quite a week in Oklahoma

and our hearts certainly go out to everyone across the state

who have been affected by the widespread flooding,

tornadoes, and other storm damage.

Even before this week however,

many producers were dealing with damage to their crops

from waterlogged fields.

We traveled to Beckham County today to learn more.

 

Flooding & crops

>>> Well certainly we've been really blessed here

in Beckham and Washita County

with the amount of moisture we've had

here in just the month of May alone,

depending on where you live in the two counties

you could have anywhere between 10 to 14 inches

and that was already on top of a soil profile

that was actually full.

All that moisture that came in May

really didn't have anywhere to go except just sit on

some of these fields and go down through the rivers

and the rivers got out of the banks

and flooded a lot of it and did a lot of damage

to some of the crops especially along the areas here

is where we have lots of moisture

and along our riverbanks there.

And as we're looking at the alfalfa field here,

certainly one of those you can see there's still

lots of standing water out there

and this crop is almost getting to the point

where it's ready to go again as far as being cut

but certainly with the forecast of more rain this week

I really don't know how it will be

or when we'll be able to get back in these fields.

>>> You know if you look at the Mesonet our soil moisture

across the state is as wet as it can be.

And that means that a lot of our soils

aren't gonna drain very well.

And so you're gonna have runoff, a lot of runoff.

When you do have ponding it's gonna be there for awhile

and that's because when our soils are saturated

the only way that water can move is through saturated flow.

And when we're dry the dry soil will actually pull

water down into it but then wet soil

it has to be pushed down through the force of gravity.

And in many instances in Oklahoma with our clay

subsoil that process is really slow.

You know a sandy soil may be able to drain

a couple inches per hour,

or a clay loam maybe a half to two 10ths of an inch an hour

and then if you have a lot of heavy clay

that swells when it's wet it may be

you know less than a 10th of an inch per hour.

And so when you have these ponds,

ponded areas like what we have here

it's just gonna take a long time,

you know if you have a ponded area that's six inches deep

and you're only moving a 10th of an inch per hour

then it's gonna be 60 hours for that water to move

through that profile.

>>> Washita and Beckham County, especially as they meet up

this is really big alfalfa country

and it's a really big economic crop.

Certainly with the recent rains we've had

depending on how it was put up, when it was cut down

and certainly the amount of water you've had on it

the relative feed value has really gone down

and certainly anybody that knows anything about alfalfa

that's how mainly most of it is sold

as far as on the relative feed value index

that we produce through the soil lab there at OSU.

Economically from say 200 to 225 a ton,

it could be down into the 150, 165.

>>> You know most of this flooding

it's gonna have very little impact

on the inherent soil characteristics.

I mean you're gonna have crop damage

due to water logging and things like that.

Probably the biggest challenges we're gonna face

are areas that have washed out where we have

hopefully not big gullies but we're gonna have

washout areas, terraces that have been blown out.

>>> A lot of producers, I talked to one yesterday there

that he estimates this first crop that's coming off there

he's probably lost between 80 and 90 thousand dollars

just because the reduced amount of crop yield

and also value of the crop

as far as nutritional value for the animals.

Well this producer was really lucky because

he got his hay cut down there about three weeks ago.

The amount of water, there's lots of water out in

that field that you can't see and certainly that's

going to be a detriment of when we can get that done.

Right across the road there,

that guy got his cut down just before the rains

and he had to go ahead and bale that up

and it almost looked like rows of mud

that he'd cut down because of all the dirt and trash

that's in there and certainly the value of the

alfalfa across the road here that's already bailed up

is not going to be worth very much.

As a matter of fact it's still sitting in the field.

It kinda depends on what mother nature gives us

but certainly we're hopeful

that we're gonna get some sunshine,

maybe we'll get out of this weather wet pattern

and we'll get lots of growing days,

good sunny days where this crop can grow

and they can get it up.

 

Nutrient loss from flooding

>>> Well and it's part of that Brian.

Water is not the only thing that moves

through the soil profile.

There's also nutrients too.

>>> Yeah, as we have movement of the water

through that profile,

it's a soil solution that's moving down.

It's grabbing all things with it.

So cation and anion,

so that's calcium and magnesium and salt particles.

All those things are in a soil solution

that plants take up as a nutrient in themselves

is moving down with it.

Now, a lot of our nutrients aren't extremely mobile.

So yes, we are having movement down of some nutrients

with that water going down.

But it's really our mobile nutrients that move the most.

The mobile nutrients are things like

nitrate, sulfur, chloride, boron.

They're mobile because they don't attach

to the soil particle, which is a charge dependent.

They repel from soil particles.

So they rarely exist in that soil solution a 100%.

So as our water moves down,

it's moving those mobile nutrients down through the profile

into the limiting layer,

to wherever that water goes and either stops.

It's either going to keep going to depth

or it will hit a limiting layer

and go down slope or down sideways.

So again, nitrate, sulfur, boron, chloride,

those are our most commonly seen

mobile nutrient deficiencies.

>>> So from that standpoint,

the winter crops are already standing.

The summer crops are in the ground.

Say we planted soy beans.

We were lucky enough to get that window

of opportunity to plant.

And what can we expect from standing water

from a recently wetted field?

>>> Okay so with the standing water,

it's not so much movement down through the soil.

Standing water means that the water has hit a limiting layer

and you filled that soil profile.

So there really hasn't been the downward movement.

Standing water is more of an oxygen issue.

And so we see oxygen lack of oxygen impacting some

of our nutrients

and making them harder to reach.

So if you have standing water,

you'll have issues with phosphorous availability.

In our sandy soils, we probably did lose some

of the potassium that those crops are going to need.

Especially when setting seed in the future.

>>> With those summer crops that may have been planted,

When?

How do producers know where they are

with their soil nutrients

and when do they go back to try and correct it?

>>> So once we're in season,

we're going to assume that everything's planted already,

it's more challenging because it's more times consuming.

A preplan, you would be out there soil sampling

have time to mail it to the lab.

The lab would analyze and get it back,

and there's more time.

Once we're in season, really it starts looking

at watching the areas

watching the crops green deficiency symptomology

and tying it to the soil texture.

So if I've got a cornfield

that's a sandy soil texture,

I'm out there looking for things

like a sulfur or nitrogen deficiency.

So nitrogen deficiencies,

yellowing at the lower of the plant.

Sulfur is yellowing at the top of the new growth.

I'm also looking for potassium,

which hones a different symptomology

around that edge in a sand.

In soils like this,

it might be holding water.

I'm looking for also nitrogen.

Maybe we (mumbles) some nitrogen.

Maybe we've had some tie ups.

So you really got to be more of a plant detective

than a soil detective

and let the plant let you know

what's going on.

So knowing your nutrient deficiencies

going through those keys.

>>> And there are actual charts in illustrations

to help with that?

>>> Yeah there's lots of opportunity.

There's several apps that are available

that you can look

that show nutrient deficiencies as visual.

We also have some fact sheets with OSU.

>>> Okay, thank you very much Brian.

And for links to all of those go to our website

sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat guitar and harmonica)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Hi, Wes Lee with your weekly Mesonet weather report.

Extremely unstable air this past week

brought numerous severe weather threats.

Multiple tornadoes, hail, and heavy rains

blanketed the state causing widespread flooding.

The five-day rainfall map from May 22nd

shows incredible amounts in the northeast quadrant

of the state.

The orange areas are in the six plus

and the reds eight and nine inches of rain.

Skiatook would win the award that nobody wants

with 9.47 inches.

Closely behind is Pawnee,

receiving 9.11 inches.

Soils were already wet over most of the state

when these storms began.

Now the entire state, even the panhandle,

is showing fully saturated soils.

This map from Wednesday shows bare soil

four inch fractional water index levels of one

at all but four stations.

And they were at 0.9.

Remember one is the top of the wetness scale.

All this water had to go somewhere

and that was our rivers, lakes, and streams.

This is the current flood advisory warnings

as of May 22nd.

It's primarily focused in the northeast section

that received the heaviest rainfall.

Lake levels are brimming full across the state

all but Atoka where dam work is being done are above

the normal pool stage and into the flood pool stage.

Many are within a few feet of even that being full

with more rain expected next week.

Now here's Gary with more on rainfall information.

>>> Thanks Wes, and good morning everyone.

Well, rain is obviously the name of the game this week,

we have no drought in Oklahoma,

and frankly if you do have some drought let me know

because I'm ready for a little bit of drought.

For the spring this far we have

a wide range of values across the state,

but all of them are good.

Some of them are too good, of course,

but in the main body of the state

from about nine inches to more than 20 inches

of rainfall across parts of the area.

Especially across central, northeastern,

and southeast Oklahoma.

Those are those big values,

and in the panhandle we have three to five inches

in the western panhandle which isn't too much above normal

but it is near normal.

So the departure from normal rainfall maps we do see

much of the state above normal

by at least a couple of inches

and then as we go from west central up through

northeast Oklahoma we see those values six, seven, eight,

nine, 10, even as much as 12 inches above normal

some areas and that's the reason for that drastic flooding

catastrophic flooding in some areas.

Now if you look at the percent of normal for that timeframe,

March first through May 21st

again almost all the state is above normal to some degree.

Some of it drastically above normal

as much as 240% above normal for spring

and that's what's so significant is this is occurring

during spring, our wettest time of the year

and when that extends up into the

latter parts of June as well.

But having a drastically wet spring means

you are drastically wet

to a greater degree.

So we are seeing one of the wettest Mays on record

and certainly not as drastic as the May of 2015

that ended up being the wettest month in the state's history

but we are exceptionally wet this May

which makes us exceptionally wet this spring.

Hopefully we can start to dry out

and get things a little bit more normal around here

as we approach the summer months.

That's it for this time, we'll see you next time

on the Mesonet Weather Report.

 

Cattle & flooding

>>> We've seen the impact of all the rain on crops,

now let's look at some of the impacts on cattle

with Dave Lalman our Extension Beef Cattle Specialist

and Dave, lots of scenes like this

around Oklahoma this week.

What kind of guidance are you giving producers?

Lots of things to think about.

>>> There are a lot of things to think about.

You know, hopefully situations like this

the water will recede and if it doesn't

and if animals are kinda trapped in a small area,

you know some way they just need to get

some feed to those animals.

That would be the main thing

to try to minimize their stress.

The last thing you want to do is feed a lot of concentrate

you know, just keep it simple.

Hay, just about you can't go wrong feeding some hay.

Because they're not going to be able to over-consume it,

so that would probably be the best thing to do

in a situation like that.

>>> I know we're kinda running through a checklist here,

but monitoring for illnesses after exposure to this kind of,

>>> Yeah, for sure.

>>> Scenario?

>>> Absolutely, I mean there are going to be situations

where, you know, the water is contaminated

with bacteria and protozoa some of those can cause disease,

diarrhea, Giardia, comes to mind

which can affect both humans and livestock.

And so you know that's going to have an incubation period

and so once animals get to safety or some better situation

they need to continue to be monitored for awhile

just in case.

>>> Pastures are water logged anyway

even before the storms this week.

Any long term impact to start being mindful of?

>>> Well, I mean not immediately.

You know, the best thing for a grazing animal

is to get to graze on high quality forage

this time of year.

So fortunately we're not in a situation where we've got

cured forage or wintertime or forage and that kind of thing.

Long term, yeah probably, you know generally speaking

we have a really wet year like this

our hay quality declines and so does pasture forage quality.

So longer term just be thinking about

be sure and get your hay tested

get those numbers back and then evaluate your

upcoming winter program because it could be affected

by forage quality.

>>> And unfortunately as widespread as the storms were

no doubt some producers are documenting livestock injuries

and unfortunately deaths as part of this.

What kind of guidance do you have here?

>>> It's gonna happen.

They're just a lot of situations like this.

And unfortunately we're gonna lose a few animals.

Probably the best thing to do would be to contact

your county extension educator,

the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service,

and those folks will have access to fact sheets,

they'll have contact information for appropriate methods

or commercial businesses that dispose of those dead animals.

>>> Okay, Dave Lalman, thanks a lot for your advice

and we'll see again soon.

And for a link to some of those resources

that Dr. Lalman mentioned, just go to sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

Vet Scripts

>>> We've had quite a bit of rain this year.

Which with rain, any time you have extreme weather patterns,

whether it's snow, lots of rain, drought,

that's stressful for animals.

So, stress always lowers immunity in these animals.

One of the problems we see with wet weather,

especially is in the feet and in the skin

constantly staying wet,

this allows for penetration of bacteria

which can lead to infections.

Bacteria like dermatophilus congolensis,

which causes a ulcerative, exudative dermatitis,

little round spots of infection that you'll see

on cattle and maybe some other animals.

Not uncommon when we get lots of rain.

The other thing that you'll see,

animals tend to congregate in areas.

They're trying to avoid the rain,

they're gonna go to certain areas, congregate.

The longer they stay there,

the more fecal material that's deposited.

Cows lay down in that, cow gets up,

if she's got fecal material on her teats

that a calf nurses at, he's prone to getting infections.

We'll see some increase in calf SARS

and those types of diseases

in these animals.

I think what's most important is to keep a close eye

on these animals and monitor.

Be ready to, any animal that shows any signs of disease

or an infection, you need to be ready to treat early

because we know our outcomes are most likely

gonna be more successful if we get on top

of those diseases early.

These moist, wet conditions and these warm temperatures,

ideal conditions for our nematodes, our worms in our cattle

and especially in our small ruminants.

Strongly suggest to those sheep and goat producers

to really stay on top of their monitoring of that.

Either do fecal egg counts, use your FAMACHA cards

or a five-point check to make sure you find those animals

early and get 'em treated if they're having problems

with parasites.

Cattle producers probably need to pay especially close

attention to those animals that are two years of age

or less because we know they have more problems

with parasites.

There you may too may wanna do some fecal egg counts

and be sure to stay on top of keeping these animals

free from parasites as best as possible.

Your obviously gonna see with more water,

your gonna see pools, your gonna see more mosquitoes,

diseases like West Nile virus or something like that

transferred through mosquitoes may become more of a problem.

One of the things that we might have to worry about later on

is with flooding you get disturbance of the soil.

There could be some bacterial spores that this flood

kicks up and deposit it in areas that they

normally wouldn't be, so spores like blackleg,

your clostridium sho-be-i.

They may become more of a problem this summer,

especially if it gets dry and cattle get to grazing low.

And anthrax, we don't usually see anthrax in Oklahoma,

but following floods, a lot of times we'll see some cases

of that show up just because we've disturbed the soil

and those spores have been exposed where cattle

can actually come in contact with them.

And these animals also tend to deteriorate rapidly

and if you see that, you probably shut contact

your veterinarian and let him come out and take some samples

to check to make sure that's not what's going on.

It doesn't look like we, I mean,

the forecast shows more and more rain coming,

so this isn't something that's gonna go away

any time soon.

Especially just keep a close eye on your animals

and make sure that they're doing well.

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Every cow-calf producer has that one or a few cows

in his herd that are just really hard to handle.

Those really ornery cows, those that, even though they're

good-looking cows, you kind of like to have an excuse

to go ahead and send 'em to town to cull 'em.

To get them out of your herd so that they

reduce the incidence of possible danger

to you or other cattle.

Well, now I think we've got

another good reason to cull those cows.

University of Florida published a study just a few years ago

with over 400 Brahman Cross cows

over a two year period of time.

What they did was they scored each cow

individually with a temperament score,

and they did that by three different ways.

They would have a technician walk into a pen

with a cow, and whether she was docile,

whether she acted very agitated

and aggressive towards the technician,

they scored her one through five.

As they put a cow onto the working chute

then how she acted on the chute,

they gave that score of one through five.

And finally, how rapidly she would leave the chute,

the exit velocity they called it,

again was scored one through five.

They averaged those scores to give each cow

a temperament index.

Also they took blood samples

and measured the amount of cortisol,

that's the hormone in the blood

that we often call the fight or flight hormone,

the one that really gets elevated

when an animal of any type gets frightened

or is very agitated.

What they found was that there was a direct correlation

not only between the temperament score,

but also the blood cortisol level,

and the reproductive capability of those cattle.

Those that had that higher temperament score,

those that were more excitable

and had more cortisol in their blood

also were the ones that were less likely to become pregnant

not only to artificial insemination,

but in natural breeding seasons as well.

So I think that gives us just another good excuse

that if we have that one or two or three cows

that are really hard to handle, go ahead and cull them,

because the chances are they're going to be

less likely to become pregnant

in the upcoming breeding season

and it just is one of those situations where

if we cull them we can make room for another cow

that is more docile and is more likely to get rebred.

Hey we look forward to visiting with you again next week

on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.

 

Market Monitor

>>> Wheat prices are up over 40 cents over last week

and Kim, what's going on with the markets?

>>> Well we actually saw a 50 cent price increase this week

and then it backed off about a dime.

I think the world is looking at what's going on old crop,

I think Russia and Ukraine have ran out of wheat to sell.

I think they've been coming into the United States.

I think stocks of quality wheat

are starting to tighten up a little bit.

The world price increased

and I think it brought along the US crop.

I think the market's also looking at what's going on

with the new crop wheat and the Hard Red Winter

and the Soft Red Winter wheat areas.

Too much rain overall, I think it's lowering the yields

and probably lowering the quality to a certain degree

and I think that's a problem.

And the funds.

The funds were record short with the Hard Red Winter Wheat

they've backed of a little bit of that.

They were long on Soft Red Winter Wheat.

Two out of every three contracts

that the managed funds held was short

and they've gotta get out of those positions.

Plus they've got a massive amount

of short contracts in corn, they've gotta get out of that

and as corn prices go up it tends to bring wheat prices up.

We got that 40 cent price increase,

I think it's just getting us back up

but it's still below the cost of production.

>>> What does that mean for 2019 as we move forward?

>>> Well as you look at 2019 and the outlook

I think probably the USDA WASDE

is the best indicator of prices for next year.

The average price for the US came in at $4.70.

You gotta back that off 20 cents,

you look over the last 10 years

our prices ran about 20 less than the US price

so that'd get us down to $4.50 for an average price.

So I think as you're looking at, we're now $4.15

for forward contract we've got a potential

35 cent increase there some time during the year.

So I think, unless things change,

prices are gonna stay below five dollars this next year.

>>> So producers really should

start thinking about selling some of their wheat.

>>> Well I think if they're looking at

developing a marketing plan I think it's extremely important

that they not base it on outlook,

that they do a mechanical plan

and follow those mechanical steps.

Get the emotion out of it, especially with low prices,

get wishful thinking out of it.

You gotta look at the situation

and then pull the trigger mechanically on that.

>>> So when should they set up those mechanical triggers?

When should they sell their wheat?

>>> Well, first, the old caveat that past experiences

or past transactions do not indicate what's gonna happen.

But over the last 11 years, 10 of those years

you needed to have that wheat sold by the end of September,

nine of those 11 years you should've sold it

in June, July, the August.

If you'd have sold it in June, July, or August,

each of the last 11 years you would've averaged

about $5.80, $5.90 a bushel.

As you go on out into the further months

that average price declines.

So I'd say have the majority of it sold

by the end of September.

I think the market changed when the Black Sea,

Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan came in

and started taking the export demand.

Those crops come in in July, August, and September.

They hit the export market around that September one

and then prices start going down,

so I think the market changed as the Black Sea came in.

>>> Okay, thank you very much Kim Anderson,

Grain Marketing Specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

And before we head out this week

I wanna tell you about the upcoming OSU Ranch Tour

across northwest Oklahoma.

The two day tour will visit four ranches

as well as stops looking at how forges have come back

following the recent wildfires,

as well as the benefits of prescribed burning.

The tour will also stop

at the Cargill salt plant near Freedom

and the Cattleman's Choice Feedyard near Gage.

The OSU Northwest Ranch Tour will be June fifth and sixth

and registration is $40.

The deadline for registration is actually this Wednesday.

For more information visit our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

>>> As we leave you today a reminder that help and information

about agriculture and the flood

and any number of topics is available

at your nearest county extension office any time.

We also have information at sunup.okstate.edu.

I'm Lyndall Stout, we'll see you next time at SUNUP.

(upbeat music)

 

 

 

 

 

 

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