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Transcript for May 18, 2019

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Rising threat of wheat diseases
  • Weeds in wheat
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Wheat variety performance
  • Food Whys
  • Market Monitor
  • Big changes to crops insurance

 

(upbeat music)

>>> Hello everyone and welcome to SUNUP, I'm Lindall Stout.

We join you today from the North Central Research Station

at Lahoma where the annual Wheat Tour

is just getting underway.

There are a lot of stops on the tour this year.

First stop for us is a discussion on wheat disease.

Here's SUNUP's Dave Deken and our extension

wheat pathologist, Bob Hunger.

 

Rising threat of wheat diseases

>>> It's been an interested year when it comes to

wheat diseases and Bob, last time we talked to you

a few weeks ago there really wasn't much

disease pressure across the state but things have changed.

>>> They definitely have changed. Leaf rust and

stripe rust have just pretty much exploded across state

and some of the leaf spotters, especially

septoria leaf blotch has stayed around and continued

to move up the plants as well.

>>> Why is that so important to treat for those diseases?

>>> Well, if you have a variety that has resistance to all

of them you can still maybe get by with that.

The problem is not all varieties

have resistance to all three of those and

they're all three are pretty active.

Usually, powdery mildew is in that group and it's

come around some too.

But it's still not as widespread as the other three.

But it's getting a little late for fungicide application.

And it's kinda questionable about whether there is enough

time to put a fungicide on before you have to harvest

and growers need to look real carefully at the labels

because some go by a length of time and days

between when a fungicide is applied and when

you can harvest and you gotta make sure that you're

in compliance with that in order to put the fungicide on.

>>> We've been talking about those specifically

but there's been some other pressures showing up in wheat.

>>> Well given this type of year with this much moisture

and cool weather, of course that's going to favor

leaf rust, strip rust, and the leaf spotting diseases.

But typically in years like this we also

see some things such as take-all root rot which can

cause whiteheads and can be a problem.

Another one would be fusarium head scab which

is a problem every year in Northeastern Oklahoma

but not so much across the rest of the state.

But having this type of moisture during flowering

with cool temperatures favors that disease as well.

And then finally, we do occasionally see bacterial diseases,

black chaff and bacterial leaf streak and

I have not seen any of those diseases yet

but it's a little bit early to be seeing them here

and I did get a report that they're seeing

the bacterial leaf streak

in mid-Texas across the black lines area, Texas and what not.

So they could be on their way this year with

the kind of year we're having.

But that is a seed-born disease so if you do

end up getting that disease, you don't really

want to keep seed from that plant the next year

cause then you'd be continuing it the next year as well.

>>> So its very timely that producers are out in their fields

talking with their county educators and

really being reactive, almost?

>>> Right, they need to be scouting for the disease

and watching for it. There's not a lot

they can do with that, especially for the take-all

and the bacterial diseases.

But you wouldn't want to keep seed

with fusarium head blight.

Of course there are fungicides that can be applied

for that to help. There are some resistant varieties

and you can harvest a little bit different,

set the blower to blow the bad seed out, so on and so forth.

So there's some things you can do.

But yeah, you're right you want to make

sure and see if you do have the disease

before you start looking at that.

>>> Well maybe next year it'll be a typical

wheat year in Oklahoma, but I guess they don't make those.

>>> Typical is atypical.

>>> There you go. Thank you very much, Bob Hunger.

Wheat pathologist here with Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Weeds in wheat

>>> We are here at Lahoma with Misha Manucheheri

our extension wheat specialist and Misha

you're talking to growers a lot today

about a lot of different things.

Let's start with the grassy wheats in wheat

and what kind of guidance you're giving them.

>>> Yeah, so we're starting season long

since we're at the end of the season

and we're thinking about next year now.

So we're going to hit on some of the

critical grass wheats, Italian rye grass,

all of our broom species in Oklahoma.

We'll talk about feral rye and jointed goatgrass.

We'll try to hit them all and discuss what's working

and what's not working as far as management practices.

>>> Are there any particular challenges

with all the rain that we've had?

>>> Yes. 

>>> This spring?

>>> Yes, so our wheat crop looks pretty happy

and it's enjoyed the rain and so have the weeds.

Anytime we have that moisture it can be a challenge.

It can also be a positive.

When we think about herbicides

and herbicides working in plants,

actively growing weeds,

we typically get a better kill from our herbicides.

So, yes they're there but if we've made an application.

In many cases, we're getting good kill.

>>> We're hearing about a new herbicide-resistant system

to control grasses, talk about that a little bit.

>>> Yeah so we, second to the clear fill system

we actually have a new herbicide tolerant

wheat that is available for growers

in Oklahoma called CoAXium production systems,

and it allows us to control many grass weeds

once they've emerged.

So, we're gonna talk about that technology today.

We've been looking at it, this is our third year

on the research side and share what we've learned as growers

and incorporate it into their fields.

>>> Probably a lot of questions about that, I'm sure.

>>> I think so, I think that's gonna be a popular topic, yeah.

>>> Let's talk about the broad leaf weeds

and kinda the management strategy there

and some of the questions that you're getting.

>>> Yeah, so, not everyone wants to control grasses.

Some folks, their priority is

the broad leaf weed management.

We don't have a lot of new active ingredients

on the herbicide side, but we do have a lot of new products.

So, it's always good to just kind of go through what's new.

It's hard to keep up with all the different trade names

of products and let them know what's working.

Also talk about resistance.

We do have herbicide resistance in the state

and some products that once were effective

aren't as effective.

>>> As we wind down the growing season

and get geared up toward harvest,

what kind of guidance do you have for producers now?

>>> As we talk about herbicide resistance,

and your grass weeds go to seed, I would say,

if you have any interest in sending in samples

to be screened, it's a great time to collect seed

when your wheat grain is ready.

A lot of those grassy weed seeds are also ready

and you can send those into the lab and we can screen.

If there's any challenges that you've been having.

So, a good time to scout and send samples off.

>>> And then that will help inform everything for the next--

>>> Absolutely. 

>>> Go around.

>>> Then we have some of our questions

answered and we can plan.

>>> Terrific.

Okay Misha thanks for your time today.

>>> Thank you.

(Upbeat country music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Many Oklahoma pastures are very very wet

after the wet winter and lot of rain this spring.

Many cases, there's standing water out in the pastures.

Producers need to be concerned about a couple different

maladies, diseases that can occur due to that situation.

One of which, is the lameness that shows up in cattle,

commonly called foot rot.

Foot rot is basically an infection that occurs

between the toes of cattle, caused by a bacteria.

One of the other problems

that I think we need to be concerned about is

the fact that we've got so much standing water.

We're going to have a lot more insects.

Biting mosquitoes, horseflies, tics,

the particular vectors of the disease anaplasmosis.

In both cases, these things certainly can

cause some real problems, not only health wise

but economically to the producer.

When you visit with your veterinarian

about those situations,

if you've got lameness showing up in cattle,

or you're concerned about perhaps preventing anaplasmosis

transmission in your herd,

we want to keep in mind the Beef Quality Assurance

guidelines as we're treating those cattle

or preventing the diseases.

If a veterinarian is recommending an antibiotic treatment,

say for foot rot and if it's injectable, well again,

let's follow those Beef Quality

Assurance guidelines closely.

Put that injection in the neck region,

and keep a really accurate record

of when you gave that injection, what was given,

and write down the withdrawal date

for that particular product, so that there's no possibility

that you decide to market that particular cow

before the time that the withdrawal date is over.

Also, if you're visiting with your veterinarian

about the prevention of foot rot or anaplasmosis,

and the discussion of including chlortetracycline

in the feed or mineral mix, that comes up,

we want to remember that the law now requires

that we have a veterinary feed directive

for the use of antibiotics

in the feed for the prevention of these kinds of diseases.

So as we go through this summer,

really take, and be careful about the use

of these kinds of treatment products.

Follow your veterinarian's instructions to the letter.

Look at the label on those products,

and make sure that we're not introducing

one of these violative residues

into a cow or stocker calf that we...

accidentally sell at a time

before that withdrawal time is over with.

I think if we do that, it'd not only help us

in our own situation, but the entire beef industry.

Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again

next week on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.

(perky guitar music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Hello! Wes Lee with your weekly Mesonet weather report.

With all the rains we have received this spring,

the soils in the main part of the state remain very wet.

This map shows percent plant available water

down to a four inch depth through May 14th.

The dark green color for all areas

except the western panhandle indicate

moisture levels at or near 100% of capacity.

They have been that way for several weeks now.

The result of high soil moisture along with

a seemingly endless influx of moisture-rich air

from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico

have resulted in high humidity levels.

This map from Wednesday morning shows blue areas

where relative humidity was 80-100%.

On the good side, high relative humidities

keep wildfires in check.

But on the downside, it also provides

ideal conditions for plant disease development.

Fortunately, the Oklahoma Mesonet has three tools

available to help citizens monitor

and deal with disease issues.

The first of these is the Grape Black Rot advisor.

It uses a temperature and humidity former

to measure infection hours.

Once the number of infection hours measures

above a certain threshold,

then it is considered a risk day.

This map shows that southeast sites

have had the highest accumulation of risk days to date.

Broken Bow has recorded 36 risk days this spring.

The second management tool is the Peanut Leaf Spot Advisor.

This model determines the number of hours

when relative humidity is above 90%

while in a temperature range of 60-86 degrees.

The 14-day map from Wednesday again

shows the southeast part of the state

would have the highest risk of Peanut Leaf Spot.

The third disease model was developed

for pecan growers in the state.

It helps to determine when Pecan Scab

is most likely to be an issue.

Once again, relative humidity and temperature

play a part in determining infection hours.

The 14-day Pecan Scab map shows very little yet

because we have been a little too cool

for this model to trigger infection hours.

A nice feature of each of these three tools

is their ability to forecast up to three and a half days.

Indicated here is the Peanut Leaf Spot

infection hours for Fort Cobb.

The red area was the last 14 days as of Wednesday,

and the blue indicated the short-term forecast

of infection hours.

Another feature of the tools is the ability

to compare disease conditions this year with previous years.

For example, this chart for Guthrie shows that

Grape Black Rot this year, shown by the red line,

might have started much earlier than it did

last year, indicated by the blue line.

Lastly, and probably most importantly,

the three tools have a fungicide

spray advisor built into them.

By plugging in a few variables such as your

last spray date and your location,

the model will tell you when the next application

would be advisable to help prevent disease development.

This is an example of the Great Black Rot

spray advisor for Burneyville.

Check out these and all of these Mesonet ag tools

that are available on our website, at www.mesonet.org.

That'll do it for this week, see you again

next week on the Mesonet Weather Report.

 

Wheat variety performance 

>>> We are here now with Brett Carver,

our wheat breeder for Oklahoma State.

And Brett, this is kind of our annual conversation

where we get up-to-speed on what's going on

with the varieties, and kinda what's on the horizon.

So, let's start with Doublestop and the latest.

>>> Doublestop's been a very good variety for us.

And for the state of Oklahoma

it's a good Clearfield variety.

It has the two genes for

herbicide resistance that we want.

But the background that it's in is just stellar

in terms of agronomics and quality.

That's great for the producer,

but it's tough on the breeder

to find a superior alternative to that.

And it's been since 2013

that we had Doublestop be released.

We have a couple candidates that we're showing today

at the Lahoma Tour that have made it to the top,

and we're just seeing if they have

enough to go over the top.

>>> The one that has been under

Foundation C production now for a couple of years

is the one we call 12912C.

It's been reselected,

so it has a bunch of numbers after that.

But what I like about this is

it has the yield potential of Doublestop,

and the quality,

a slightly higher yield potential,

but more importantly, earlier maturity.

If there's anything I've wanted to improve upon

with Doublestop, which is make it earlier,

everything else stay the same.

This is an earlier maturing Doublestop.

In fact, the pedigree is 75% the same as Doublestop,

so they look very much alike,

but this will finish earlier, no doubt.

>>> [Woman] Let's talk about the white wheat varieties.

>>> Yes.

>>> What you're working on and then kind of,

what the market scenario is right now.

>>> We're working on something that will

be competitive with not only our own,

which is Stardust, a 2016 release,

but also some other really good wheat varieties

out there in the market.

One from Kansas State University called Joe.

So, with Joe, you've got really good disease resistance

and high yield potential,

and the quality is acceptable but it could be improved upon.

So we have three options with the white wheat.

This is our highest-yielding option, the 16729W.

Actually, it has some soft red winter

germ plasm in it from LSU,

and that may sound a little bit odd,

but we actually breed quite a bit with soft red winters.

The fact that we got a hard white out of this cross

is a little bit unusual, but we'll take it.

Probably our highest-yielding option, right there,

but our lowest quality.

But that's a state-wide variety, too.

This one is more targeted for the Panhandle.

We'd like to have something Panhandle

and North Central Oklahoma-adapted,

but this is strictly targeted for the Panhandle.

A Bullet derivative, has Australian germ plasm in it.

That's a little bit unusual

to end up with something adapted to the Panhandle

that comes from Australia, but again,

genetics can do some really crazy things sometimes for us.

Probably our best overall option,

best suited for North Central Oklahoma,

is a hard white,

competes right along with those hard reds.

It will compete very well with Joe, and Stardust, of course.

Is this, I just call it a 6W for short.

Look at the canopy on it, this is a beautiful,

overall disease-resistant package

that rivals anything we have in the hard red winter side.

So we have some really good choices to make.

Here we have something that I think

is going to help us deal with change.

This is a rock-solid genetic package

for Barley Yellow Dwarf.

I think once we get the package put together

into a high-yielding background,

it's going to stick.

Now we've finally had the high-yielding background,

combined with quality.

The three options are right here in front,

the one in the middle, 16D101089,

is probably, overall, our best one,

but we need time to figure this out

and we needed this year,

and I think we're going to get it this year.

Just the information we need.

But you can see the canopy on this variety,

it looks like a fungicide has been applied to it,

but it hasn't.

This has dealt with the diseases common to this field:

Leaf Rust, Stripe Rust, Septoria,

Tan Spot, Powdery Mildew.

And this is what it's done.

It's pushed back against all of those.

We didn't have Barley Yellow Dwarf,

but had we had it, we would have seen the same canopy.

So we're really high on this one,

this is a Duster grandson, that we brought in.

The germ plasm, the gene-donor,

for Barley Yellow Dwarf-resistance,

other than what's in Duster, came from Purdue University.

But I think what's giving us the yield kick,

and the quality kick, is Bentley.

Bentley was crossed with that Duster derivative

and this is what we have.

>>> [Woman] Quite a family here.

>>> Yes, it is.

>>> With varieties with familiar names,

as well as with your fellow scientists

at other land grants, it sounds like.

>>> Yes, it takes a cooperative effort,

not just at our university,

with the wheat improvement team,

but all throughout the land.

>>> Well, Dr. Carver, it's always great to touch base with you

and we share your enthusiasm,

so please keep us posted with everything.

>>> Will do.

>>> Okay. 

>>> Thanks for allowing

me to update you.

>>> Thanks a lot.

(upbeat music)

 

Food Whys

>>> Gluten, gluten-free, and Celiac disease

are terms that you may have heard of,

or wondered about, and wondered,

how many people do they actually impact?

Gluten is a mixture of proteins

that occur naturally in wheat, rye, barley,

and crossbreeds of these grains,

and the concern is that people who have Celiac disease

might inadvertently eat a food that contains gluten.

Celiac disease occurs when the body's immune system

reacts to gluten by causing inflammation

and damage to the lining of the small intestine,

which can affect the absorption of nutrients.

As many as 3 million people

in the United States have Celiac disease.

That's almost 1% of the entire U.S. population.

FDA has determined that products

that have less than 20 parts per million gluten

should not be harmful to people

that suffer from Celiac Disease.

So FDA regulations allow packaged food

that is purchased at retail

to be labeled gluten free if it contains less

than 20 parts per million gluten.

The FDA allows manufacturers to label a food

gluten free as long as the food

does not contain any of the following.

One, an ingredient that is any type

of wheat, rye, barley or crossbreeds of these grains.

Two, an ingredient derived from these grains

that has not been processed to remove gluten

or three, an ingredient derived from these grains

that has been processed to remove gluten

if it results in the food containing

20 or more parts per million gluten.

The majority people in the United States

can consume gluten without any issues.

However, the gluten free labeling laws

are there to protect those individuals

that may be adversely impacted.

For more information, please visit sunup.okstate.edu

or visit fapc.biz or download the FAPC app.

 

Market Monitor

>>> Well there was some excitement

in the grain markets this week.

So Kim, what's going on?

>>> Well we had a 17 cent increase in corn prices.

Some people were saying that that brought wheat prices

but we got a 21 cent increase in the wheat.

At the latter part of the week, it backed off a little bit.

Hopefully what we have here is not a dead cat bounce.

>>> So what's some information you were able

to gleam from the WASDE?

>>> Well if you look at the WASDE that came out last Friday,

I think the market evaluated that.

Slightly higher wheat production in ending stocks.

You look at record world wheat production,

record world wheat ending stocks.

You got corn, the production relatively high.

The ending stocks high.

You look at wheat for the 1920 marketing year,

they're projecting $4.70 for an average price for the year.

Compared to $5.20 this year, $4.71 in '17.

Remember in '17, even though the US price

was $4.71, Oklahoma price average down near $4.

That was because of quality and I think

that points out the importance of quality.

Corn was projected to be $3.30,

below the $3.50 this year and about equal

to the $3.31 in '17.

>>> So what about all those countries

hanging out in the Black Sea region?

>>> If you look at the Black Sea region,

you know that the projections there are...

You know the USDA has Russian production

at about 2.8 billion bushels.

Russia's got their production at 2.9 to 3.0 billion.

Ukraine, a higher production.

Their stocks are relatively tight right now

but it looks like they're gonna have good crops

and they're going to continue to control that export market.

>>> So, what's the overall message

that you would say to producers?

>>> I think producers should expect low prices

this next year unless we lose the crop

in the Black Sea region.

>>> All right, thanks Kim.

And now back to Lahoma with her

Ag Policy Specialist, Amy Hagerman

with some information about insurance policies.

 

Big changes to crops insurance

>>> We're joined by Amy Hagerman,

our Ag Policy Specialist here at Lahoma.

Amy, lots of news in your world.

Let's start with dual use crop insurance

and what kind of guidance you're giving producers.

>>> Yeah, so this is actually a change

in the Farm Bill I think could be really good

for our Oklahoma producers.

What dual use crop insurance means

is that producers can sign up

for their rainfall index insurance

and they can sign up for a multi-peril grain insurance.

So, for our winter wheat stocker producers,

that means that this summer, they'll be able

to sign up for crop insurance and for rainfall insurance

if they're planning to graze stockers on that land.

The sales closing date on that

is probably gonna be mid July for planting

that's going to happen from July 16th to October 15th.

The good news about this policy,

for our Oklahoma producers is if we get

some dry times and the rainfall index insurance

will pay off and the grain insurance will pay off too.

They can get payments under both

if they choose to go that direction.

The thing they need to evaluate

is whether it makes sense for them

to pay two premiums on their insurance.

So, I recommend they talk to their crop insurance agent,

get the details on that, and find out

if that makes sense for them.

>>> What is happening in the way of ARC and PLC?

Just kind of give us the rundown there

and what the latest is.

>>> So we've gotten a little bit of news

on ARC and PLC, specifically regarding

land and grass that has crop base.

Now, you'll recall we've talked

in previous segments about how in this Farm Bill,

land that's in grass from 2009 to 2017

continuously with no covered commodities

planted on that land at any point

that's in a single FSA farm number

may not be eligible for ARC and PLC

enrollment this time around.

That doesn't mean they lose their crop base,

but they won't be able to sign up for ARC and PLC.

That evaluation is happening

by Farm Service Agency right now.

So, they're looking at your crop production history

reports that you have filed for that time period

and they're determining whether or not

you'll be eligible to enroll in ARC and PLC this fall.

It's a pretty big deal for some

of our producers here in Oklahoma.

So we can expect to see letters on that

coming out from FSA some time this summer.

And then hopefully, that is going

to be the first step to actually getting enrollments

for ARC and PLC started, which I've seen

some announcements say that that could happen

as early as September one.

>>> So, deadlines, there's a lot to keep track of.

What's the best way to stay organized?

>>> I think just making sure you get

all your crop production history reports in with FSA.

Make sure you're talking to your FSA agent,

your NRCS agent, your crop insurance agent

and your banker to make sure you've got

everything lined out for all of these different areas.

Because not only do we have the changes

in ARC and PLC and crop insurance

but we also have the changes in the FSA loan limits

that occurred in April.

So just keep the communication lines open.

That's really the best thing I can say.

Make sure you're staying up to date

on all of these deadlines, getting all your reporting in.

It's gonna be a busy year.

(laughs)

>>> Definitely, good thing we have you too.

Okay Amy, thanks for the update

and we'll see you again soon.

>>> Thank you.

(bluegrass music )

 

>>> That'll do it for us this week.

Remember you can find us anytime

at sunup.okstate.edu and also follow us

on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone

and remember Oklahoma agriculture starts at sun up.

(outro music)

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