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Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

Phone: (405) 744-4065
FAX: (405) 744-5738
E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for July 28, 2018

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Choosing a spray nozzle
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Drones & Agriculture
  • Livestock Marketing
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Market Monitor
  • Food Whys
  • Varmint control & capture

  

(optimistic music)

>>> Good morning and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Dave Deken, and this week we're taking a look

at some of the technology used in agriculture.

Even some of the technology that changes our

perspective a little bit.

We'll have more on UAV's later in the show.

But first, we're starting with spray nozzles

and the science behind them.

SUNUP's Kurtis Hair caught up

with Extension Ag Engineer John Long.

 

Choosing a spray nozzle

>>> We're here with our Extension Ag Engineer, John Long,

talking sprayer nozzles, and John you kind of have a

little system set up here.

Kind of give us a little overview of what you have going on.

>>> Sure, so what I've got here is what we call

our spray table.

It's basically just a setup that's designed

I can take to different events, a lot of meetings

across the state as far as both youth and producers.

And just gives us a way to demonstrate what happens

in a agricultural spray rig as far as being able

to recirculate water, and look at different nozzle types,

show different things like wear and that kind of thing.

>>> So is this one an older or newer model than this one?

How are these two different?

>>> So I've got a couple different ones here,

but the ones I have selected here,

this is just a extended range, flat-fan nozzle

that's kind of, I guess the technology's been out

for many years.

These used to come in brass and stainless,

you can still get them in those materials now,

but a lot of them come in plastic and metal inserts.

And it's just a flat-fan nozzles used a lot

for a lot of different broadcast applications,

and that kind of thing.

The one I have on the right here that's selected

is a air induction-style tip.

This happens to be a two-piece tip,

but it basically draws air into the system,

mixes air with water, and creates much larger droplets

than the small tips at the same flow rates.

>>> So when you're applying these out in the field,

what type of situation would you be using these for?

Where would they come into play?

>>> So both of these are flat-fan nozzles.

They'd be used on a broadcast application sprayer.

So you would have them on a boom spacing

just like I have here.

The original flat-fan here, extended range,

those can be used for a lot of broadcast applications,

but they're really good for where you need a lot

of coverage, because they produce a lot of smaller droplets

especially at higher pressures,

whereas the air induction-style nozzles are used

in areas where we want larger droplets,

and they're going to be used a lot of times

in places where we're applying herbicides,

especially systemic herbicides like Roundup,

and those types of things.

>>> Can we actually turn it on to see kind of

what the difference?

>>> Sure, yeah.

(motor hums)

So we've got the two nozzles here that are set up,

and you can take a look here just from the visual standpoint

you can see that there's much finer droplets

coming off this nozzle versus our air induction.

You can also really kind of hear the air induction

a little bit, drawing that air in and mixing it.

If we look at the nozzle itself, there's a lot of fines

coming off of this particular one.

If I increase the pressure a little bit

so we're running at 40 PSI, if I increase the pressure

just a little bit more, we get even more fines

kind of rolling off of this one.

So that's one of the issues we have with these nozzles.

They provide a lot of fines for good coverage,

but we get a lot of those that could be driftable.

>>> So why the change between the two?

Like what brought that about?

>>> So there's been a lot of changes in any industry

over time as new technology and materials come out,

but drift is a big thing that I already kind of hit on

there is that that's one of our concerns.

We want to make sure that we're applying our herbicides,

our insecticides, where we want them to go.

It's been a big thing in the news lately

and in the past couple years, especially,

but we want to make sure we're using our resources wisely,

we're getting good effective kills on the pests

that we're trying to control, and also we're able

to not damage our neighbors and cause other issues

from drift coming through.

>>> Alright, thanks, John.

And if you would like any more information on that,

you can go to our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

(optimistic music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> I'm Al Sutherland with your Mesonet weather report.

Dry soils have become the norm

in more and more areas of Oklahoma.

A map of the percent of plant-available water

from the surface down to 16 inches highlights

the widespread areas of low soil moisture.

The shock on this map is how low the brown area values are.

In the teens or below ten percent of plant-available water

at many Mesonet locations.

Fractional water index gives us

point measure of soil moisture.

At the 24 inch depth there is a dramatic split

between the green areas that are above six tenths

and the dry areas that are two tenths or lower.

A fractional water index of one

is the wettest the soil can be.

Zero is the driest it can be.

Today is my last Mesonet weather report.

It has been an honor and a pleasure to bring you information

about Oklahoma's weather through these TV segments

over the past 10 years.

I hope you have gained a better understanding of our weather

and how Mesonet data and products can help you

make the most of each day.

I wish you and your family the best

in the days and years ahead.

Now here's Gary with a check

on droughts' increasing intensity.

>>> Thanks Al, and good morning everyone.

Let me start off by saying what a pleasure it's been

to work with Al Sutherland over the years

on the Mesonet weather report.

255 shows dating all the way back to the Spring of 2009.

Now I'm gonna clue you in on a little secret.

I'm definitely willing to admit, and I'm sure we all can,

that Al was the brains of this non-dynamic duo

and he was also the better looking.

Now speaking of truly ugly, though, let's go straight

to the new drought monitor report.

We are seeing that severe and extreme drought,

the darker browns and that red starting to spread

over more parts of the state.

Northeast Oklahoma now has a pretty big blob

of extreme drought surrounded by severe drought.

Also starting down in southeast Oklahoma,

those are newer areas of extreme drought.

The area of severe drought has also expanded.

That's the darker brown.

And the light tan, which is moderate drought,

that's also starting to grow, get larger and larger

as that hole of non-drought area in the central part

of the state starts to shrink a little bit.

And we still have that area up in northwest Oklahoma

that's also not in drought or abnormally dry.

But it can't last long unless they start to get rainfall

in the face of all this heat we've recently had.

Now, speaking of rainfall, this last 30 days,

that looks like a typical summertime pattern in Oklahoma.

Some folks have had three to four inches.

Other people have had less than a quarter of an inch.

Again, that's typical for summer in Oklahoma.

Now if we look at that as percentage of normal rainfall

over the last 30 days, and that shows that pretty well.

Those red and orange areas, those are folks that are

in danger from the flash drought situation

we're currently seeing, so they are definitely the folks

that are most in danger of seeing that flash drought

continue to intensify.

So as we leave July and enter August, it would be nice

to get more rainfall to prevent further spread

of that flash drought that we're currently seeing.

That's it for this time, and we'll see you next time

on the Mesonet weather report.

 

Drones & Agriculture

>>> The old saying of up in the sky,

it's a bird, it's a plane.

No, actually, it's a UAV, and Brian, the UAVs are used

for agriculture purposes also.

>>> Yeah there's a lot of opportunity using UAVs, UASs,

Drones in agriculture production today to go scout.

What I mean by that is that we get a different view

of a field when you get up high, and especially,

if you look at the corn behind us here,

it really gives you a sense of how getting above a crop

could really help you see what's in it.

Cause you can't see more than four of five foot

into this crop, so if you had a quarter section of corn

that's at this point and you wanted to go look for a problem

let's say you have irrigation and you wanna see that.

Getting up above it is a lot easier, and so,

the probably most applicable use for drones right now

in cropping systems is a quick scout, is getting

that bird's-eye view, knowing, does everything look okay?

If it doesn't, I need to go here,

and actually have that spot pinpointed.

You might not necessarily be able to tell what it is,

but you go to it.

>>> So up there we're looking at maybe 60,

70 foot of altitude there.

What can a producer do a quick scout with at 60 or 70 feet?

>>> That right there's not necessarily a scouting altitude.

If you're looking at a full field,

you're going to get up to about 400 feet.

You're going to get near three, four hundred foot

which is the maximum altitude allowed by FAA,

so you get to that and you could see

with a pan up, you can see the majority of a quarter section

but you still fly out into it.

Most of these drones will have a range from a quarter mile

to a mile, depending on what you have, so you could easily

get over a quarter section and look at it.

Under one battery life and some of the newer drones

with longer battery life and more distance capability

could see a full mile section

worth of ground from up above.

>>> When you're scouting, do you scout for,

can you see insect pressure?

Are we looking for more nutrients?

Are we looking for more irrigation usage?

>>> So what you're really doing with a drone like this

is looking for differences in the plants.

That's why I'm saying, you won't know what's causing it.

So you could potentially fly down

and get really close and zoom in

and see is it insect, is it drought.

Sometimes you get close enough to tell what it is.

Like in this field we have a couple red ant mounds.

So from the air you just see there's the dead spots.

You can get close enough you can tell it's an ant mound

and the harvest ants have gone in there and killed it.

But in other spots you might not know if it's nutrients,

if it's a pest or disease, you just know

that something's going on there.

And that's why I say with the drone

it doesn't take the boots away from the ground,

because you still gotta go out there and

use that agronomic evaluation

to find out what the problem is.

>>> So really this is changing the perspective,

allowing producers to use their farm experience

more profitably?

>>> More profitably, it allows agronomic scouts

to be more efficient, and it allows farmers

who are scouting themselves to be more efficient.

For me, it's all about the efficiencies.

There can be efficiencies bills

if you're one of those producers

who go out and look at your fields regularly,

this can add efficiency.

>>> Okay, thank you very much, Brian.

For more information on UAV go to our website

sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

Livestock Marketing

>>> The USDA recently released a lot of reports

including the July cattle report.

And Derrell, did that report tell us anything

about herd expansion?

>>> This gives us a little bit of a longer-term view

of where we are with the overall inventory of cattle.

So the cattle inventory as of July 1,

the all cattle inventory was up 1%.

If we focus on the cow herd,

the beef cow herd was up about 0.9%.

Dairy cow herd and dairy replacement heifers

were unchanged from a year ago,

but the beef replacement heifers were down about 2%.

So what this suggests is that we do

have more cattle in 2018, that's not really a surprise.

We're probably seeing some modest additional

herd expansion here in 2018,

but it also suggests that we may be reaching a peak here

and we could see these numbers stabilize

at some sort of cyclical peak as we go into 2019.

>>> So going into 2019, does this change

your expectations regarding beef production at all?

>>> Not too much.

For the near-term, the feeder supplies

that we calculate from this July inventory report

are up about 0.5%.

The calf crop estimate was up about 2%,

which means that we're gonna have

ample feeder supplies not only for

the rest of this year but into next year.

And again, with the beef cow herd at least as big,

probably a little bit bigger for 2018,

that means an even slightly bigger calf crop in 2019.

So we're gonna continue to see plenty of cattle

through 2019 on in to 2020.

>>> Among those several reports

was the monthly cattle on feed report.

Was there any big surprises in there at all?

>>> You know, this report actually was very well anticipated.

Placements and marketing were both up about 1%.

Now there was a fairly wide range

of estimates on placements so maybe

some individual analysts were surprised a little bit,

but on average, the report was very well anticipated.

The July 1 on feed inventory was up 4%, 4.3% I think,

and that's a continuation really of what we've seen.

We've maintained a pretty constant 4%

year-over-year increase for the last several months

in these cattle on feed inventories.

>>> So what does all this mean for producers

going into the second half of the year

and then going forward into 2019?

>>> Well, I think we expect to see

probably some seasonal price pressure

as we go into the second half of 2018.

First half of the year, feeder cattle prices

actually averaged at or slightly above a year ago levels.

So we'll probably see some seasonal pressure,

but the key is as always is gonna be demand.

Demand has helped us for 18 months

in the cattle and beef industry.

As long as that continues, then we don't look

for a lot of pressure.

That'll probably be true even though we'll see

a slight increase in production again in 2019.

We're looking at only modest price pressure

as long as the demand is there

to absorb that additional supply.

>>> So what are some factors that producers should

be watching or be considering going forward?

>>> Obviously we look at all the fundamentals.

The supply side fundamentals, I think,

are pretty well in place.

Probably the only thing we're watching

is carcass weights to see just how much

they increase seasonally here towards the end of the year.

But really it's the demand side,

and that demand side is gonna be determined

by this very turbulent, global environment

that we find ourselves in right now.

Lots of trade issues, lots of policy issues out there.

Those can have a multitude of different

direct and indirect impacts

that could affect the beef demands.

So I think that's what producers are probably watching.

We hope to see a little bit of clarity

going forward at some point.

In terms of how this stuff might

play out of the next several months.

>>> Alrighty, Derrell.

Derrell Peel, livestock marketing specialist

at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Most places in Oklahoma this summer,

have had enough rain fall in order

to grow quite a little bit of standing forage in the form

of native grasses or Bermuda grasses that will help us

as we go through the last half of summer and into the fall.

Now, we know those grasses are going to be maturing,

and with hotter days and dryer days,

the quality of that forage will decline as well,

but we can use a nutritional principle

to really help the cattle better

use that declining quality of forage,

and the principle I'm talking about is called

Positive Associative Effect.

What do I mean by those big words?

Well, that is the utilization of a small package

of protein supplement that helps the bugs in the rumen

of these cattle to grow

and to be able to digest

that lower quality forage.

As long as those bugs in the rumen have adequate protein,

they can multiply and do a good job of helping

that particular animal utilize more of that forage

and to utilize it better.

Take a look at this particular graphic that gives

you an illustration of what happens when some cattle were

fed just one and three quarters pounds of cotton seed meal

while consuming some low quality forage.

In this case, the forage was less than 5% crude protein.

By feeding that small amount of protein supplement,

the retention time,

the time that that forage

was in the rumen, and in the stomach of the cattle involved,

was greatly reduced

by about 32%.

That of course meant that the cattle could

then get hungry again, go back out, and consume more forage

than if the forage stayed in the rumen

and took a long time to be utilized by the animal,

and because of that,

then we see that the amount of forage

being consumed voluntarily by these cattle,

to get that small amount of protein supplement,

is increased by 27-28%.

That means they're not only getting more protein,

they are getting more energy, and more energy

out of the hay that they are consuming,

and therefore they perform a little bit better.

So that's the concept of Positive Associative Effect.

Using just a little bit of protein to help these cattle

better digest the lower quality forages that they'll have

available to them as we go into late summer and early fall.

So if you have some replacement heifers,

perhaps some stocker cattle,

that's a concept that can really be helpful to you

with a relatively small amount of dollars invested to get

considerably more use out of the forage that's available

to those cattle this summer.

Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again

next week on SUNUP's Cow Calf Corner.

(upbeat music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> For once there's some good news in the wheat markets,

and Kim that news has to do with the price of wheat.

>>> Well if you look at the current prices,

it's back up to around $5.50, and in some places

in Oklahoma, I think it got up to $5.60

early in the harvest.

So we are back up to those price levels,

and I think that's good news.

>>> What's driving that?

Would you call it a price rally?

>>> Yeah, of course it's a price rally.

We have had about a 75 cent increase

over the last two weeks,

and I think the reason for that increase is what's going on

in the former Soviet Union, and European Union.

They continue to lower the European Union

soft red winter wheat crop.

If you look at soft red winter wheat prices,

Chicago reported the CBT contract

versus the KC contract, they're about even.

So that spreads went away because EU's lower production,

but the big news is, Ukraine and Russia's production

estimates are continuing to go down.

There were reports this week of sprout damage

and a lot of wheat in Russia.

So you've got lower quality than last year.

You've got the report of less harvested acres

or lower harvested acres.

You've got report of lower yields, while lower productions.

They are talking maybe down around

2.4-2.5 billion bushels.

Rather than 3.1 last year.

>>> A year ago at this time,

Egypt was kind of a player in all that.

Is Egypt in it this year?

>>> Oh yeah, Egypt just tendered for some wheat.

Reports are they are going to pay

about $6 a bushel.

FOB at the Black Sea port.

This time last year they were paying about $4.90

Know so you're looking at $1.10 higher wheat prices

right now than we had this same time last year.

>>> Now speaking of things in the news,

there's been some discussion of 12 billion dollars

of money going into agriculture.

Is that going to play into the markets any way?

>>> I can't see in playing into the market price because

their corn's already in the field,

you know it's already been fertilized.

Soy beans are planted, our wheat's harvested.

Our spring wheat's already down.

You know a supply and demand situation it's no impact

however it could make the farm as a whole more profitable.

If you look what's goin' on I think that

administration's primed to compensate producers for

their loss because their the pawn in

this Chinese-American trade war.

Which is not about agriculture products.

It's about durable goods, autos, technology,

that sort of thing, but Ag's the pawn and

China, you know, they announced that they're buyers if

that product goes into the state store,

they'll compensate them for the tariff cost.

And Trump comes back or the administration comes back

and says well we're gonna compensate

our farmers for their loss too.

So it's a tit for tat war goin' on here.

On the trade side Ag's the pawn.

And the two governments are trying to take care of 'em.

>>> Thank you much, Kim Anderson great marketing specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

(acoustic guitar plucking)

 

Food Whys

>>> Let's talk spice.

When was the last time you cleaned out your spice cabinet?

Old spices won't make you sick

but they will give you some bland food.

Spices and herbs can last different lengths of time.

Ground spices like nutmeg and cinnamon

last two to three years.

Herbs like basil, oregano and parsley last one to three.

Seasoning blends last one to two years.

Whole spices like cloves, peppercorns,

cinnamon sticks last four years.

Seeds four years with the exception of poppy seeds and

sesame seeds, which should be discarded after two.

Extracts usually last four years

with the exception of vanilla which will last forever.

If you don't know how long the spices have been in

your cabinet and the container does not have a

best buy date then bring your senses into action.

Look for bright, vibrant colors.

Faded hues equal faded flavor.

Aromas, rub the spices in your hand.

If the aromas are weak, it's time to toss.

Taste the spice or the herb.

If the product is lacking in flavor

then it's past it's prime.

If the product lacks in any flavor, color or

aroma then it needs to be thrown away.

Storing your spices and herbs away from heat,

light and moisture can help extend the life of the product.

If you're going to store your herbs and spices out

on the counter then they must be stored in

airtight and dark containers.

As light will fade the color and heat and

air will decrease the flavor profile of the spice.

Keep you mills full of flavor with

spices that are up to date.

To learn more about FAPC visit our website at

fapc.biz and download our app or

Sunup at Okstate.edu

 

Varmint control & capture

>>> It just wouldn't be summer in Oklahoma if

we weren't fighting off flies and ticks and even mosquitoes.

But they're some mammals out there that are

causing homeowners some headaches too.

Oklahoma State University Extension wildlife specialist,

Dwayne Elmore has some advice for managing

what many of us would call varmints.

 

>>> [Dwayne] So often people wanna attract wildlife around

their home, but there are some wildlife species

that commonly cause damage.

One of those that we get a lot of calls about is armadillo.

And we particularly hear complaints during the summer months

when people are irrigating and the armadillos are

mostly feeding on grubs and other insects in the soil.

So when people are watering, especially during the

time of the year when a lot of

the prairie and the forest is very dry.

The armadillos are often attracted to home landscapes.

And so they'll dig and tear up turf and

this can be unsightly and it can kill turf at times.

So if you're having problems with armadillo

sometimes reducing irrigation can help,

but if you need to irrigate an area,

armadillos can be trapped and you don't need to

bait a trap for this, we generally just try to funnel them.

We use large live catch traps, about

12 inch openings and long funnels.

>>> [Shannon] It hits the wishbone triggers and

as he gets close and hits those triggers

the door drops behind him, like that and he's captured.

Most of my work is in town where I'm dealing with houses

around town where we've got animals living

moved in under the houses.

We've got a lot of wildlife all over the town,

from foxes and raccoons, skunks.

>>> Another animal that often does turf damage is a skunk.

Specifically striped skunk and similar to armadillos

they dig, usually it's not as damaging as an armadillo.

The digs are usually smaller, they can also be trapped.

Use a smaller trap, one with about

a six or seven inch opening.

And for skunks you do need to bait.

And I would recommend either sardines or

tuna or something like that easily will attract a skunk.

So if you do happen to catch a skunk,

be careful not to come in contact with the animal.

Like many mammals they can carry rabies.

So don't allow that animal to potentially bite you

or get any saliva on your skin.

Also you know they spray and it's really hard to

deal with a skunk in a trap without

getting sprayed, frankly.

So there's some other animals we

often get calls about raccoons and

opossums are sometimes the problems.

And typically with both of those animals

they're either getting into garbage or

they're eating pet's food.

And those are real easy to deal with.

And rarely do you need to trap.

If they're getting into garbage,

use metal cans or really heavy duty plastic.

And secure the lid with a strong, sturdy strap.

If they're getting into pet's food,

just try to only put as much food out as

the pet will consume at a time.

And not leave food out all the time particularly

don't leave it out at night.

 

>>> Well that does it for us this on Sunup.

If there's something on the show you'd like to

learn more about visit our website sunup.okstate.edu

While you're there check out our social media.

From a research plot near Lake Carl Blackwell

I'm Dave Deken and remember Oklahoma agriculture

starts at Sunup

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