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Transcript for July 21, 2018

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Scouting for insects
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • The Oklahoma Gold Program
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Market Monitor
  • Cottonmouth identification
  • Managing insect pressure
  • Digital dermatitis

 

(energetic music)

 

>>> Good morning and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Dave Deken, and as you can tell,

the crops are coming right along this time of year,

and so is the potential for insect pressure.

SUNUP's Kurtis Hair caught up with

Extension Entomologist Tom Royer

to see what producer should be scouting

for in their fields.

 

Scouting for insects

>>> The situation with Sugarcane Aphids is

I think, is really amazing.

Over the last few years, it went from being a huge crisis

to this year, we're finding 'em in some sorghum fields,

but they're at very low levels,

and I think it's because of the widespread adoption

by producers, both in Texas and Oklahoma and Kansas,

of adopting resistant varieties

and maybe altering their planting timing a little bit,

so that they're planting a little bit earlier.

And so this has gone from a major pest,

to it's something that we've seen this year,

but it hasn't shown up in any kind of numbers

at all to be concerned about.

>>> So while the Sugarcane Aphids haven't been an issue,

some producers who double-crop soybean after canola

are having some issues with Chinch bugs.

>>> Yes they did.

I had several producers that had false Chinch bugs,

which really like canola.

When the canola gets harvested,

they don't have anything to eat,

so they tended to move over into

soybeans that were double-planted.

As those seedlings were coming up,

they were just attacking 'em and glomming onto 'em

to the point where seedlings were struggling

to get started growing, and they had to be treated.

The same kind of issues kinda happened with sorghum.

When it's planted after wheat, true Chinch bugs get in...

They're in wheat, and then they move into sorghum,

and sorghum's pretty sensitive to 'em.

So we've had some issues this year

with producers having some Chinch bug issues

that are causing a little bit of injury to their sorghum

as it's trying to grow and get bigger.

>>> So the storm just moved through here,

and in some parts of the states getting a lot of rain,

some parts of the states are still pretty dry.

How does rain impact, or lack thereof,

impact crops in regards to insects?

>>> Well, adequate rain, course, makes the crops healthy,

and they can withstand pests.

When they're under stress from lack of water,

that also makes 'em a little more susceptible

to pests attacking them.

And then we have insects like grasshoppers

that tend to do better under dry conditions,

especially if you have dry conditions year after year.

It allows them to build up and escape some of the diseases

and the things that typically knock them back.

The biggest issues with grasshoppers

is timing of any kind of application.

There's some products that work pretty well on 'em,

but if a producer has control over large areas,

there are some really effective products

that aren't very hard on other natural enemies

or birds or anything that are in the area,

especially in range land,

where they can spray a product in strips.

The grasshoppers move back and forth,

and you can reduce 'em that way,

and it's a fairly inexpensive way to control 'em.

But the producer has to have access

to pretty large areas to be able

to have that be effective.

>>> All right. Thanks, Tom.

And if you would like a link to any

of that information that Tom talked about,

go to our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

(energetic music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Forage Sorghums are plants that are grown here

in the Southwest part of United States,

very often for hay crops because they produce

a large tonnage per acre each year.

Forage Sorghums are plants that we have some concerns about

during the hot parts of July and August,

in terms of if they become stressed,

then they can accumulate high levels of the toxin nitrate

and that, of course, can be deadly to cattle.

Through the years, we've learned a lot about nitrates

and how to manage around them.

One of the myths, however,

that I think we ought a clear up today

is about the time of day

that these plants would be harvested

having an impact on nitrate concentration.

You see, for years, many people thought

that if we cut this hay crop late in the afternoon

or early evening hours, that that would reduce

the nitrate concentration that might be

in any kind of stressed forage sorghum plant.

Research was done here at Oklahoma State University

at five different locations,

where we took samples of plants

at two hour intervals, at those different five locations.

We did it starting at eight a.m. in the morning,

every two hours through six p.m. in the evening,

and then took those samples to the OSU laboratory

to be tested for the nitrate concentration.

What we found was tremendous differences

in the nitrate concentration from the different farms

that were tested, but as far as the time of day,

it had very, very little difference.

If you look at this particular graph,

you'll see lines for across the daytime,

the amount of nitrate concentration

from those five different farms.

You'll see one that was very, very low,

around 400 parts per million,

one that averaged nearly 9000 parts per million,

which, of course, could have some dangerous areas

as far as nitrate toxicity in it.

You wanna remember that most laboratories consider

10,000 parts per million as potentially lethal for cattle.

So, I think we want to,

as we're harvesting this forage this year,

number one, test it before we cut it,

because once we cut it,

that nitrate concentration's going to stay the same,

and we don't need to expect that that nitrate concentration

is going to be lowered by the time of day

at which we cut the plants.

We hope this helps you as you harvest

those kinds of forages this summer,

and we look forward to visiting with you again next week

on Sunup's Cow-Calf Corner.

(upbeat guitar music)

 

The Oklahoma Gold Program

>>> Forage quality's changing this time of year,

and it's important to add a supplement to the feed,

and Dave, Oklahoma Gold is a program

that producers could look at.

>>> They ought to be looking at it as an option

this time of year.

That program has been well-proven,

established for a long time,

been very popular here in Oklahoma for good reason.

Probably applies mostly this time of year

to fall-born, weaned calves,

which is what we've got here in the background.

It applies to those weaned heifers that are

in development and getting ready for breeding

this coming fall,

and also, yearling cattle that are waiting to be shipped

here sometime in the middle of the summer.

>>> Talk about some of the ingredients that go into it

and the science behind it.

>>> Okay, the forage quality, as you mentioned,

is declining.

Generally speaking, even though there's a lot

of lush, green grass out here, the protein concentration

in these native species, generally, about this time of year,

begins to fall below about eight

to nine percent crude protein.

These cattle, gaining two pounds a day,

require somewhere in the neighborhood of 9 1/2 to 10,

and so, protein will limit their gain

to under two pounds a day.

Now, if we can provide the Oklahoma Gold Supplement,

it's high in protein concentration,

it's about 38% crude protein,

so it's high in protein concentration,

and then, we also include a feed additive,

which the options are primarily Rumensin or Bovatec.

Those two products add about,

on average, the science would say about .17 pounds

of additional weight gain.

The protein adds another .4,

so you add those two things together

and you're right at 6/10,

just under 6/10 of a pound a day

increase in weight gain out here on this mid-

to late-summer forage.

The cost delivered, you know,

somewhere around 375 to maybe 400,

so we'll say 385.

Cost per day, if you're feeding a pound a day,

is about 19 cents.

You do the math.

That's 6/10 a pound to add of weight gain

is gonna be worth somewhere in the neighborhood of

60 cents, maybe 50 to 70, depending on the market,

so very cost effective.

Adding the feed additive, Rumensin or Bovatec,

costs a little over a penny a day.

And then if you do the calculations,

the value of it is getting close to 20 cents,

so it's very cost-effective.

>>> So for a little bit of money per day, per cow,

you can actually continue that growth

that they need this time of year.

>>> Yeah, they might be limited this time of year

to a pound and a half a day,

due to the protein concentration.

With the food additive and the protein supplement,

you can bump that to over two pounds a day.

So add 6/10 of a pound,

and again, it's cost effective.

>>> Okay, thank you much, Dave Lalman,

for talking through the Oklahoma Gold program.

And for more information on that,

you can go to our website, sunup.okstate.edu

(upbeat music)

 

Mesonet Weather

Hi, I'm Wes Lee,

here with your weekly Mesonet weather report.

We're now in the middle of summer,

and temperatures are soaring,

especially in the west.

Tipton and Grandfield already had 43 consecutive days

above 90 degrees as of July 17th,

and it will only get worse from there.

For livestock producers,

being able to supply an adequate amount of drinking water

in the heat is critical.

To do this, a producer needs to note two variables.

How much will the animal drink,

and how much water is lost due to evaporation?

A common rule of thumb for cattle

is two gallons of water per 100 pounds of body weight

in hot weather.

For evaporation, a common method used

is called pan evaporation.

This is where a small metal tank

is filled with water each day,

and water loss due to evaporation is recorded.

Weather factors, such as temperature, wind speed,

sunlight, and humidity all can play a factor.

Mesonet pan evaporation values for July 17th

show Wister in the east had a 0.22 inch loss.

Pauls Valley, in the middle, lost 0.34 inches,

and in the west, Hollis had 0.43 inches of evaporation.

If you had a small metal trough,

I would use these pan evaporation numbers directly.

Now here's Gary with an update on the moisture situation.

>>> Thanks, Wes, and good morning everyone.

Well, I've been talking about it for weeks and weeks,

but it is unfortunately starting to come true,

we are seeing that drought start to intensify rapidly

across eastern Oklahoma,

especially northeastern and southeastern Oklahoma,

but also along the Red River,

and of course, southwest Oklahoma is now the main core

of the worst drought in the state.

So let's get straight to the drought monitor map,

and see what we have.

So from Osage up to Ottawa County,

that's the area in northeast Oklahoma

where the deficits are growing each day, in fact.

And also, southeast Oklahoma,

we still have the moderate to severe drought

down in that area.

But as we can see, southwest Oklahoma,

up into west central Oklahoma,

we still have a large area of that extreme drought.

That's the red color,

and we might see that start to spread even more

over the next few weeks.

Now if we look at the departure from normal rainfall

for the growing season thus far,

we can see those areas, northeast Oklahoma,

southeast Oklahoma, and also southwest Oklahoma,

you have a deficit of 11 inches up in Craig County

and far northeast Oklahoma.

Widespread deficits of eight to 10 inches in that area,

and widespread deficits, again,

from six to eight to 10 inches.

We have a picture from the USDA of the topsoil moisture;

the percent short to very short for each state.

Oklahoma now at 50% short to very short

for that topsoil moisture,

an 8% increase from last week,

so that is an indication that our topsoils,

at least the top few inches,

are starting to dry out.

That's it for this time.

We'll see you next time on the Mesonet weather report.

(upbeat music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> Recently, there's been some changes

in the crop acreage reports,

and Kim, what's causing that to happen?

>>> Well, I think it's the price relationships

between wheat, corn, beans, the milo, sesame,

and other crops.

And you look over the last seven or eight years,

wheat hasn't been at near as profitable

as those other crops.

You go back to 2017 on corn,

we planted 350 million bushels.

Now it is down to 310 this year,

on the USDA's projections, or estimates.

Sorghum was 315,000,

it increased to 400,000 this year.

Soybeans was 655,000 in '17,

it's projected to be 660,000 this year.

Cotton, 585,000 acres last year,

720,000 acres this year.

Big change in cotton.

And, what's happened to wheat?

Well, our average wheat planted acres is

around 5.1 million,

last year it was 4.5,

this year for '18, '19

is projected to be 4.4 million,

or down another 100,000 acres.

>>> With all those adjustments in the crop acreage,

that has to be impacting the price

of each of those commodities.

What are we seeing with those?

>>> Well, if you look at the price impact

from Oklahoma production on those commodities,

it's really insignificant.

However, you know,

we was talking about the relationships there.

Now, corn, you can forward contract it

for harvest delivery now for somewhere around

$3 and 20 cents in Oklahoma

or if you get out in the Texas panhandle, around three 65,

that's a 35 to 40 cent under basis

in central Oklahoma

or a 10 over in the panhandle.

Our corn prices, as you know, has declined significantly.

About 80 cents over the last couple months,

and I think that's because the near record condition,

good condition of the corn crop.

>>> As we move on from corn to sorghum,

where are prices at with that?

>>> Well, you look at sorghum,

it's about $3 and 25 cents

plus or minus 10 or 15

depending on where you are in Oklahoma,

and that includes the panhandle

where you have a premium for corn in the panhandle

relative to central Oklahoma.

Sorghum is priced about the same.

>>> What are we seeing in the soybeans in Oklahoma?

>>> Seeing a lot of volatility and a lot of talk about it.

You look at soybean, the future's prices,

you know, it went from around $10 down to eight,

something like that.

USDAs price on the July WASDE,

they lowered it from right at $10 to $9 and 25 cents,

took it down to 75 cents.

Now, part of that is because, you know,

you're looking at a, not a record,

but a near record for a soybean crop being produced.

And, you also got the China tariff situation.

So, how much of that 75 cents is the Chinese tariffs

and how much of it is anticipated production?

Well, that's for, you know, discussion,

I'd say it was probably 60% tariffs

and 40% production, but that's just a guess.

>>> And, of course, one of the larger crops

exploding across the state is cotton.

>>> Well, you look at the cotton price right now,

you've got the future's market at 88 and 1/2 cents

on that December contract.

You get USDA projecting the

'18, '19

or next year's average price of 75 cents.

If you can get the crop in and harvest it,

that's the most profitable crop out there.

But, you do have to get the production.

>>> Well, thank you much, Kim Anderson,

great marketing specialist here

at Oklahoma State University.

(lively bluegrass music)

 

Cottonmouth identification

>>> So during the summer months,

we get a lot of calls from people wanting to know

if a snake they've seen in the water,

perhaps in their pond,

is a Water Moccasin.

What they're generally asking,

is it a Cottonmouth?

Cottonmouths do occur in Oklahoma,

but they're restricted to the eastern part of the state.

So, if you're in central Oklahoma

and certainly if you're in western Oklahoma,

chances are you're seein' a non-venomous water snake

and not a Cottonmouth.

Cottonmouths are pit vipers,

so they're gonna have a diamond-shaped

or heart-shaped head.

They also have a white mouth,

hence the name Cottonmouth.

So, often they will give you a warning

to stay away by opening their mouth

and if you see that white,

that is a Cottonmouth.

But, by and large, most of the snakes

that we encounter around ponds or streams

are completely harmless.

There several species of non-venomous water snake

that occur in Oklahoma

and all of them, including the Cottonmouth,

primarily feed on frogs,

sometimes fish,

but, lots of amphibians,

and even rodents that are around the pond.

So, if you happen to see a snake at your pond,

it's probably completely harmless.

The best thing to do,

even if it is a Cottonmouth,

is just to leave it alone.

(acoustic guitar music)

 

Managing insect pressure and Digital dermatitis

>>> As we work our way through July,

the crops are coming along

and Josh, things are looking great in the crop world!

>>> Yep, yep, we're looking pretty good

as far as a lot of our summer crops go,

but, I have to say it,

just like I've said it all year long,

is things are still pretty spotty.

We do have our spots to the state

where we are looking

less good if you will,

you know, to where things just aren't as green

and is perky as we'd like to see.

But for a bulk majority of the state,

we're looking pretty good.

>>> What are we looking for in the sorghum crops

this time of year?

>>> Well, you know, with the good conditions,

with everything looking good, that also brought challenges.

We talked earlier this year about weeds and

how big of a challenge that was gonna be,

and it turned out that it was.

And now, we're talking about bugs, about insect

pressure this late in the season.

>>> What kind of insect pressure are we

seeing on these plants?

>>> Well, right here we actually have a spot that,

it's got pretty good worm pressure, and what

we're seeing throughout this is, whether it be

fall army worm or corn earworm, we're starting

to see a pretty good buildup, and we can see

that they're taking to some of these heads

of the sorghum plant pretty well.

And so, what these little things do is

they'll actually go and start eating the grain

as it's in that, what we call milk, or a soft dough.

You know, something that they can go actually

bite into and kinda chew up.

That's what they'll be doing, and that's what we'll

see around the majority of the state.

And then what growers can do is if they are

in that after anthesis but before we get to

that more hard dough stage, growers can go and

look at that little mess that we see right there

on that flag leaf.

Well, you see those little white specks.

Well that's them eating that grain.

And so, what you can see is if you go through,

and you have something that looks long like that,

or if you have something that the flag leaf here

doesn't seem like it's doing, if you rip this

back, we got a worm right there.

And so, if you take a look at some of these, Dave,

you're gonna find, you're gonna find quite a bit

of worms in through here.

And they will do some damage, 'cause they're

actually eating our finished product, so we

need to make sure that we're ahead of the curve on them.

>>> Out here at the Perkins research station, we have

the sorghum, but you also have some trials on soybeans.

You wanna go take a look?

>>> That'll be good.

>>> So the soybeans are actually looking pretty good

this time of year.

>>> Yeah, it's really odd to see some of our dryer

areas of the state really producing some really

nice-looking soybean that we have here.

But, kinda like what we were talking about with

the sorghum, we're kind of at this stage, and so

our pest management's probably our number one concern here.

>>> What are we seeing as far as pests go in the soybeans?

>>> The big thing with soybean is, depending on what

stage you are, our pests are a little bit different.

The insect pressure is alive and well, and we're

having actually quite a bit of stinkbugs

start building up. 

>>> Oh, wow.

>>> So we have an egg set here that is actually hatched.

They've gone.

They've flown out.

They're kind of in this world now.

Really big this year.

We found a lot of them last year.

Really big thing that's limiting a lot of our soybean

yields, we do believe, is just stinkbug pressure

and growers not getting on those stinkbugs.

The most difficult thing is finding them.

You know, get a good sweep net out, or drop cloth

and actually get into and find those,

because once we actually get them, identification

is pretty good.

Most of the time, they're gonna be what we call

"southern greens", and our threshold for southern greens

is quite high in soybean.

The soybean plant can take quite of a bit of a beating

on those, but what we need to do is make sure

that we see when they're there, and start treating

when they are getting at that threshold.

>>> Okay, thank you much, Josh Loftan, cropping system

specialist here at Oklahoma State University.

(happy country music)

 

Digital dermatitis

>>> Digital dermatitis, which is commonly referred to

as hairy heel warts, is the leading cause

of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide.

It was first discovered in 1974 in Italy

and made its way to the United States in New York

dairies in 1980.

Now the reason I'm mentioning it today is

we're beginning to see this problem more in beef cattle.

Now the disease is not fully understood.

We do know there's three common factors.

It's associated with manure-contaminated environments.

There seems to be some breakdown in the immune system.

And lastly, there are several bacteria involved,

but one that they commonly find is called treponema.

Now when you see the disease, it tends to occur

in the hind limbs.

We tend to see it on the backside of the foot

between the toes, and what you'll initially see

is kind of a red, circular raised area,

have a strawberry-like appearance.

Now, if left untreated, what we'll see is little papila

grow out of this, and it'll give the

appearance of a wart-like structure.

So that's where we get this "hairy heel warts"

as a common name to it.

If we don't treat it, then it progresses.

You'll see just a general erosion of the skin

on that backside of that foot.

So how do you treat this disease?

One of the things you need to be sure and do

is distinguish this from foot rot, because

this disease does not respond to oral or

injectable antibiotics.

It has to be treated topically, and if we get our

treatment, start our treatment early, we have

a much better chance of getting this

disease under control.

Now, how do we prevent this disease?

Well, we don't have a vaccine, so we have to

rely on, basically, biosecurity.

Make sure that these cattle are not out standing

in the muck all the time.

We need to make sure things are clean and we

try to keep those feet as dry as possible.

Some producers, if they start to have problems with this,

will run these cattle through foot baths periodically,

and that seems to help in the control.

When we're working cattle, we need to be very

careful, especially if we've got hard surfaces

and these cattle are forced to make sharp turns

on these hard surfaces.

Be gentle with them, because that will make small

breaks in the skin, which allow those bacteria

to penetrate.

If you would like some more information about

digital dermatitis, just go to sunup.okstate.edu.

(happy country music)

 

>>> Well that does it for us this week on SUNUP.

If there's something on the show that you'd like

to learn more about, visit our website,

sunup.okstate.edu, and while you're there,

check out our social media.

From the Cimarron Research Station near Perkins,

I'm Dave Deken, and remember: Oklahoma agriculture

starts at SUNUP!

(happy country music)

 

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