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Oklahoma State University
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FAX: (405) 744-5738
E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for April 14, 2018

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Wheat Update
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Market Monitor
  • Nitrogen Rate
  • Vet Scripts
  • Oklahoma Agriculture Leadership Program
  • "Rye" is it so green on campus?

 

(upbeat guitar music)

 

Wheat Update

>>> Hello everyone, and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Temperature swings are having an impact

on Oklahoma's wheat crop.

To learn about possible freeze damage,

SUNUP's Dave Deken caught up with our extension

small grain specialist, David Marburger.

>>> A significant amount of time and temperatures

mid to lower 20's and some areas on the panhandle,

even into the teens,

and with any time when we have freeze injury

we need to, it's very hard,

but we need to be patient.

We need to wait at least five to seven days

before we go out and start assessing what was the injury

on that crop.

If temperatures after the freeze event,

even say cooler maybe than normal,

then we might have to wait even longer

before we can really, truly

assess the amount of injury that we hard.

>>> I know that in a freeze damage situation like that

time and temperatures go into

and locations go into play a role

into how much freeze damage there is.

Is wheat on a hill better than wheat in a valley

and if so, how long does it need to be below freezing

before it can be damaged?

>>> One of the frustrating things about freeze damage

is every freeze event is unique

and there's a number of factors

that go into whether we're gonna see

a significant amount of injury or not

and you listed a couple of them there.

What growth stage are we at with the plants?

How cold did we get?

How long did we stay at those cold temperatures?

Typography, so plants on top of a hill,

may not be injured

as much as those in a lower spot in the field

because of the cooler air can settle

into that lower spot into the field.

>>> Earlier this last week, you hit the road

and you went up into Northwest Oklahoma

and saw some of the wheat up there.

What did you see?

>>> Yup, so we were heading out that way

to get an opportunity

to get a look at some of our variety trials

and get our signs put up in those areas.

And we were from Cherokee all the way out west out to Keyes.

Growth stage wise, in our variety trials,

we're anywhere from about feekes eight,

so the flag leaf's starting to come out,

up to not quite getting into jointing yet

as we moved out in to the panhandle.

Cherokee to Alva, started to see some leaf tip burn

which is what we're often gonna see in a freeze event.

In so cases, we did see some tillers

which were startin' to turn brown.

With it indicating that that growing point is dead

but other than that, as the further west we moved

right now it was just a lot more leaf injury at the moment.

That's not to say we can't have maybe some more.

>>> And hopefully by the time we get to June maybe,

maybe July, we should be done with the freezes.

What should producers look for in the field

whenever they do go out and scout for freeze damage?

>>> Yup so one,

make sure you know what growth stage you're at.

One of the first things you probably see

is leaf tip burn so out on the leaf tips

it's gonna start turning a dead color.

It might start to curl up.

A lot of times, that's typically just cosmetic injuries

but we need to check the growing point.

We need to make sure

that growing point is still alive and healthy.

What's that head look like?

So get out there and start splitting stems length ways.

Try to get and isolate that head and take a look at it.

That head should typically be a greenish color.

It should look plump, should look turgid.

If it's turned off-white.

If it looks flaccid, it doesn't look plump anymore,

that is an indication that that tiller could be dead.

After that, if plants that are much further along.

We get into the boot.

We get into the beginning heading,

as we kinda are in parts of the state in Southwest Oklahoma.

We need to start looking at the head.

You might see blank spots

on the head where those particular spikelets were killed

as the head emerges.

Heads that emerge should be green color.

If they start to turn more of

a light yellowish color,

water-soaked appearance, that's not a good indication.

>>> Okay, thank you much David Marburger

and for more information on assessing freeze damage,

check out our website sunup.okstate.edu.

(cheerful music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> I'm Al Sutherland with your Mesonet weather report.

This week folks are thinking freeze and fire.

Last weekend was a cold one with freezing temperatures

across the state on Saturday and Sunday mornings.

Nowata had the highest number of hours below freezing, 28.

Honors for the coldest temperature went to Slapout

with a minimum air temperature of 16 degrees.

Every Mesonet site went below freezing last weekend.

The lowest number of freeze hours was at Idabel, 6 hours.

The check for freeze damage has started

and will continue next week.

Some plants are very sensitive to cold

while others barely notice the chill.

Some growth stages on a single plant may be damaged

so the plant has both freeze-damaged leaves or flowers

and healthy leaves or flowers.

From those freezing temperatures,

we finish the week with high fire danger days.

Wednesday's heat and wind drove

the Mesonet burning index into the hundreds.

At 4:00pm Wednesday, 16 Mesonet sites

had burning indexes above 100.

If fires had started in those locations,

flames would have been over 10 feet high

at the head of the fire.

Fire danger will be with us until

we get more warm season growth.

This picture from a prescribed burn

shows how green growing plants stop fire.

Here's Gary with a check on rain and drought.

>>> Thanks Al, and good morning everyone.

We've had just about everything

weather-wise over the last few weeks.

One thing we've had for months and months

is of course drought, and it is really

packing a wallop across western Oklahoma.

Let's get straight to the new drought monitor map.

As you can see, the western half of the state

covered by severe to extreme to even exceptional drought,

the worst category on the drought monitor.

That covers much of the northwestern quarter of the state

all the way through the Oklahoma Panhandle.

I-44 serves as that rift dividing line

between drought and no drought.

A little bit more in southwestern Oklahoma,

a little bit less in northeastern Oklahoma

but the drought continues and so does the lack of rainfall.

Let's take a look at some Mesonet rainfall maps.

The 30-day rainfall map looks pretty good

again, if you're southeast of I-44

and a little bit up in north-central Oklahoma

in Alfalfa, Grant County, that area.

However, if you look at the percentage of normal rainfall

from the Mesonet for the last 30 days

you'll see even that area up in north-central Oklahoma

is still well below normal and of course

the good rains as usual are down in south-central

over into east-central Oklahoma.

The worst of that drought up in northwestern Oklahoma

that has it's roots all the way back into

the first of October of 2017.

If we look at a 180-day rainfall map

we can see again the same type of pattern.

Western Oklahoma largely devoid of significant rainfall

but some pretty good rains across southeastern Oklahoma.

The percentage of normal map is just about

the same as the 30-day map.

I-44 once again serves as that rift dividing line.

You go out to the Panhandle and they have

less than 10 percent of normal rainfall.

We did have significant fire weather this week.

That did a lot more damage I'm sure

so we're gonna have to take that into account

in next week's map so stay tuned for that next week

and we'll see you then on the Mesonet Weather Report.

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> As we're completing this spring calving season,

I think it's important for producers

to make a good record of any sets of twins

that might have been born during this calving season.

It's especially important if those twins

were both a male and a female, both a heifer and a bull,

being born as twins together.

The reason is that any heifer calf

that was born twin to a bull is very likely,

over 95 percent chance that she will be infertile,

incapable of reproducing if we keep her around

for a replacement heifer.

That's why we wanna have that number written down

in our book so that next fall when we wean those calves

we make sure to cull any heifers born twin to a bull

so that we're not keeping them as replacements,

and it's also a really important reminder

to us as to why, when we have a set of heifers

that we're growing and putting through

their first breeding season that we make certain

that we do a pregnancy checking on them

as soon as is possible after the breeding season's over

so that we can identify any of those possible heifers

that might have been born to a twin bull

that we didn't catch or even have a situation

where during a pregnancy there was bull calf

that didn't make it and that portion of pregnancy was lost

but the heifer still survived,

that one can still turn out to be one of those

infertile freemartins as we call them

that we don't want to have in our herd

as a reproducing heifer.

That's then means that this calving season,

or any calving season, if you find a heifer calf

that's born twin to a bull, let's make sure that we make

good records, and do not keep that heifer calf

as a replacement after weaning time.

We look forward to visiting with you again

next week on Sun Up's Cow-Calf Corner.

(country music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> Kim Anderson, our crop marketing specialist is here now.

And Kim, the USDA released the April WASDE report,

so the big question is, how will it impact prices?

>>> Well, I think it's gonna have a

pretty big impact on wheat prices.

Let's look at corn and beans first, though.

You look at market, they were expecting

the Indian stalks for corn, for the '17 to '18 marking year

to be 2 billion, 189 million bushels.

It came in at 2 billion, 182 million,

I mean right at the estimate, so not much impact there.

You look at soybeans, the market

was expected 574 million bushels there.

That came in at 550, so slightly better,

and we saw beans going up.

I think the big news and the

long run impact's gonna be on wheat.

On U.S. wheat, the market was expecting

1 billion, 36 million bushels.

It came in at 1 billion, 64.

And anytime wheat's, U.S. wheat ending stocks

are over a billion bushels, that's bad news.

And in this case, is worse because the

actual number was above the trade's expectations.

And if you look at the world, the world came in just

slightly under 10 billion bushels ending stocks.

The old record was slightly under 9.4 million bushels.

We got a lot of wheat around the world,

and that's not good news.

You looking further out in the long run, you look at the

spread between hard red winter and soft red winter wheat.

They used to be right even on the Chicago futures contracts.

Right now, hard red has a .45 premium over soft red.

You look at hard red winter versus hard red spring.

You used to have about a dollar and a half

premium of spring over winter.

Right now that's down to a dollar.

>>> And that is for the '17, '18 marketing year, correct?

>>> That's correct, and you look at it '18, '19,

and what's happening in the United States,

of course with the hard red winter wheat,

and that's why we got the improved,

or the higher spread between hard and soft is

weather problems with our hard red winter wheat crop.

>>> Well let's talk about the Russian and Ukraine

2018 wheat crops, and kinda what's the picture there?

>>> Well that's more bad news for us.

Why we're having problems with weather,

while we're having weather problems producing a crop,

it's going good in Ukraine and Russia.

I read late this week that Ukrainian wheat production

is expected to be higher than last year.

That's not good news for Oklahoma wheat prices.

>>> Now China appeared to kinda back off

the trade war talk this week.

What does that mean for AG?

>>> Well, we've been talking about that.

That they're in the negotiation stage,

and it's rhetoric right now.

It's 60, well it's less than 60 days now.

Probably 50 days or so before any tariffs go into effect,

but there's a lot of uncertainty

out there with this trade business.

>>> So with all of this in mind that you've talked about,

the WASDE reports, the potential trade wars, what kind of

advice do you have for Oklahoma producers this week?

>>> Well it's not a pretty picture, and I think the finances

are gonna be tight, and that the financial situation's

gonna be tight, especially for wheat producers.

I think now's the time to work with

the landowners on your rental agreements.

Now's the time to tighten the belt, and now's the time to

put a pencil, and look at alternative products to produce.

>>> Okay Kim, thanks a lot.

We'll see you next week.

And to the classroom now, to catch up with Brian Arnall,

and learn about the Stanford equation

to calculate nitrogen application.

 

Nitrogen Rate

>>> I spent a lot of my time

talking about nitrogen fertilizer.

How do we apply it, and when to apply.

But I don't often get into the basics

of where does that nitrogen rate come from.

The interesting aspect of that is that

nitrogen rate calculations can be taken back

to a single equation, called the Stanford equation.

Now there's three parameters of this equation.

We're gonna break those down one at a time.

First, Nup.

This is an uptake by the crop.

So this is the nitrogen that's within the grain.

The nitrogen within the forage, or the fiber.

So it's that nitrogen that you're

gonna be removing from the field.

It's not in a wheat crop, it doesn't count the nitrogen

that goes back into the residue when you take the grain off.

It's about the nitrogen that's relieved,

or removed with the grain.

The second is Nsoil.

So this is the nitrogen component within the soil.

If you think back to the standard land grant

recommendations, you have a yield goal recommendation.

So what is your yield goal.

N uptake minus soil test nitrogen.

So that would be whatever's in the soil pre-plant.

This also can include legume credits, maybe manure credits.

So this is the N of the grain minus the nitrogen

that could be in the soil.

You take those two together, and this is the total.

Total N that is needed, but then the third factor

is N efficiency.

This is the efficiency at which the fertilizer

is going to be used by the crop.

Now this takes into account source, method,

timing, and losses.

So if we really look at this, you go what's the total needed

by an efficiency?

And that is divided by maybe a percentage.

So in a case of needing 100 pounds of nitrogen

for the crop at a 50% efficiency,

we're going to need to apply 200 pounds

because only 50% of what's applied will be taken up

or used by the crop because the other is lost.

Now we get back to this equation,

we look at that yield goal recommendation.

So if you look at it, winter wheat,

the typical rule of thumb that we've been using

for a long time is two pounds of N per bushel.

Now that takes in all this.

So yield goal nitrogen.

So if I want 40 bushel of wheat,

I need 80 pounds of nitrogen minus my soil test.

Now the 80 is a little off because that two pounds of N

that's more than what the crop needs.

Winter wheat is only having about 1.26 to 1.3 pounds

of N per bushel.

So where does that two come from?

That's the efficiency.

That old rule of thumb is taking in all aspects of this,

and basically increasing the nitrogen needed per bushel

to account for that efficiency.

If you want to know more about nitrogen rate recommendations

go to the SUNUP web page at www.sunup.okstate.edu.

(cheerful music)

 

Vet Scripts

>>> Well I know a lot of you are still dealing

with dry conditions, but I'm praying that all of us

will get some good spring rains

to get the grass growing real well.

And one of the problems that we see in sheep and goats

when it starts to get wet and muddy,

is we start to see some foot problems.

And the two most common problems that we see

are foot rot and foot scald.

Now foot scald is caused by a bacteria called

Fusobacterium necrophorum, and that particular problem

usually infects that area between the toes.

You'll see it look red, or maybe moist.

It'll be inflamed, maybe a little swollen.

Now foot rot, on the other hand, which usually begins

as foot scald, usually is a much worse condition

than foot scald.

There's another bacteria involved in it

called Dichelobacter nodosus, which can really cause

some destruction to the hoof.

When we think about treating these conditions,

one of the first thing I would suggest to you

is to isolate these guys, because in foot rot

that is a contagious disease, and the way that bacteria

survives is it survives in the feet of carrier animals

and is transferred from one animal to the next.

And we need to get these guys isolated

when we have a foot rot case.

Next we need to select an appropriate antibiotic

to treat these with.

I would suggest you to consult with your veterinarian

on picking out what is the best product for you.

We probably need to be pretty aggressive

with these feet in trimming them.

There's been some studies in Australia that says

that doesn't necessarily affect the outcome

but I would still get in there

and trim those feet up pretty heavily.

If you've got several of these to treat,

you may want to think about using a foot bath.

Some of the products that we put in there

are like copper sulfate, or formalin, or zinc sulfate.

It may make it a lot more convenient for you

if you've got several to treat.

The last thing you might want to do is give these guys

some pain medication, so be sure and consult

your veterinarian on what you might do about that.

Prevention would begin with sanitation.

Try to keep things as clean as possible.

Nutrition plays a very important part.

Zinc and biotin, vitamin A, vitamin E are very important

in the health of the hoof.

Once again, really important that you keep that foot dry.

You may have to make some type of alleyway

where these guys walk through some lime

to dry their feet off when it's really wet,

or you just may have to make you a foot bath up

and have them go through that every now and then

to keep this problem under control.

If you'd like some more information about foot problems

in sheep and goats, if you'll go to sunup@okstate.edu.

(cheerful music)

 

Oklahoma Agriculture Leadership Program

>>> Now to a milestone for Class 18

of the Oklahoma Agricultural Leadership Program.

They've officially graduated

from the two-year program

that involved seminars and tours around Oklahoma,

and even a week in our nation's capitol.

But the capstone is always

the international trip, and this time

they traveled to Nicaragua, Panama, and Costa Rica.

>>> The international component

is always a very important part of our program.

It's the last seminar that we do,

and it's usually around two weeks.

>>> Well, we started out in Nicaragua,

spent a couple of days there,

went to some Brahma ranches.

>>> The country also grows tobacco for cigars,

as well as rice, a staple food in that region.

After Nicaragua, the group had the opportunity

to see one of the Seven Wonders of the modern world,

the Panama Canal.

The class also visited a little-known facility

that is critical to local livestock producers.

>>> Probably one of the most important visits

that we saw was in Panama,

going to the screwworm facility.

That is a facility where they...

where sterile male screwworm flies

that they release 14 million flies every week.

Screwworms lay their eggs in the open wounds of livestock,

causing severe infections and even death.

Sterilized male flies mate with the females,

but don't reproduce.

This saves the U.S. livestock industry

more that one billion dollars annually.

>>> Then we ended up in Costa Rica,

where we got to see the pineapples,

bananas, coffee,

then finally made 'er back to the United States.

I really enjoyed the pineapples,

and just getting to see, you know,

that whole operation, how they

was harvested and then

as we watched them come in and being packaged,

we got to try it, and pineapple was amazing.

>>> And so just to have them exposed

to those kinds of farms and plantations and ranches,

gives them a good overall perspective

of how important agriculture is across the world,

because we rely on going to the grocery store here,

and being able to have bananas year round.

Well, you can't do that if the marketing system

doesn't exist somewhere else in the world.

>>> Getting to see how they do stuff over there,

which is a lot different than

what we do stuff in the United States.

Everything over there's, a lot of it is hand labor.

>>> What we want these participants

to gain on the international trip,

is we want them to gain perspective.

You come back to Oklahoma

and bring back what you're seeing,

what's good, what's bad.

>>> This class marks a milestone for the program,

with more than 500 graduates

of the Oklahoma Agricultural Leadership Program,

since it began in 1983.

>>> This program's great.

I encourage all my producers

that I work with on a daily basis

to do this, and I know family's a big commitment,

I know there's time, but it's worth it.

If you can...if you can spare the time,

and allow yourself to do this,

it's going to pay dividends in your future.

>>> Mainly the comradery of everybody in the class.

You know, getting to know everybody,

getting to meet the contacts,

and stuff out on those individual basis,

and get to know people.

I mean, learned a lot, and got to meet

a lot of really cool, interesting people

along the way.

>>> And special congratulations

to our friend and colleague, Craig Woods,

who is a graduate of Class 18,

and shot and produced that story.

And if you're interested in applying

to OALP's Class 19, we have a link

on our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

The application deadline is May 10th.

(blue grass music)

 

"Rye" is it so green on campus?

>>> And that'll do it for us this week.

We leave you today with a visit

to OSU's formal gardens, where Steve Dobbs

and his team are helping campus stay green

both above and below the soil.

 

>>> Well, most people believe

that what we have planted on campus

through the winter time is wheat,

but it's actually maybe a close cousin,

it's actually cereal rye grain.

It'd be hard to tell 'em apart,

especially at the stage that we keep them growing,

which is trim like a turf grass, almost,

for the winter months.

We plant the rye for several reasons,

one of which is for color

through the winter time.

Green is actually a pretty color

through the winter when everything else

seems to be brown or tan or dormant.

The other reason where you see it planted is because

it works as a cover crop, or green manure crop.

So here in the formal garden,

where you see it most predominantly,

we plant it in the fall,

and we grow it through the winter time,

we till it into the ground,

roots and all the top that's left,

and it acts, again, like a green manure crop,

so we're adding organic matter

back to the soil, which actually benefits the soil,

it helps encourage more microorganisms,

it's a fluffier, lighter soil,

so we grow seasonal color a little bit better.

With organic matter, we get more earth worms,

which we didn't used to have in this garden,

it was very heavy clay.

So it's really worked nicely

as a green manure crop.

Rye grain, when grown as a green manure crop,

can actually minimize soil-borne diseases.

And some studies even show it might

minimize soil-borne nematodes.

And so we've had some of those problems

in the formal gardens, so we also are growing it

for that reason.

So that's actually putting

design and color

with some research-based science,

and I think we're seeing

some results of that.

Now, we haven't done a scientific study with it,

but we are definitely seeing some benefits

in using the rye grain.

(cheerful country music)

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