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E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for February 24, 2018

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments:

  • Summer pasture planning
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Market Monitor
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Soil elements
  • Food Whys

 

(upbeat instrumental music)

 

Summer pasture planning

>>> Hello, everyone, and welcome to SUNUP, I'm Lyndall Stout.

Even though most of Oklahoma has been frozen this week,

we are thinking warmer thoughts.

And caught up with extension Forage Systems Specialist,

Alex Rocateli, to talk about planning now

to make sure your pastures are ready for summer grazing.

>>> I was looking to the weather last weekend

and I was seeing like, well, we were getting temperatures

right above 65 Fahrenheit.

We may get some green-up of the Bermuda grass

and all the warmer seasons pretty soon

in the south part of the state.

However, look what happened.

>>> [Lyndall] Yeah.

>>> Come, just it's freezing rain, and I think that

we will postpone even more any green-up

from our tropical grasses.

So due to that we have still a good time for planning.

And I would say first thing that we need to get ready

is soil sampling

I don't say right now, but let's wait

for all that to get to defrost.

We get some of that water into the soil,

get warm temperatures and let's go out there

and take some good soil samples and send for analysis.

I understand that for some producers

it's very complicated to do yearly.

Every year, soil samples is expensive,

and sometimes they have a huge area.

It can take a lot of time.

So that's where we come with this rule of thumb.

If they have pastures,

then pretty much what they do is haying.

They can come and do soil sample analysis every third year.

Now if they're grazing it extends a little more,

and do every fifth year.

Well, the more frequent the better,

but that would be the minimal

that I would say that's good and required.

Now after that we do our soil samples

and we get the analysis back,

I would say lets go and do some fertilization.

Let's apply phosphorus and potassium

according to your soil analysis.

I think that is better that we apply P and K

before we have the green-up and right before the rain.

So we can have those nutrients

ready in the soil for the plant.

Now when you talk about nitrogen fertilization,

that's most of the questions

that I have on fertilization

is nitrogen.

Where is the best time to apply?

If you're going to think about an ideal time,

would be later, when we have, let's say,

the Bermuda grass or the tropical grasses

already growing completely green-up.

And you have about three to six inches of growth.

The runners, you can see that they are already pretty long,

that's the best time because the plant already have

some good rooting systems that's going to be catching

all those nitrogen in the soil.

Now, if we apply the nitrogen with phosphorus

and potassium pretty early,

actually we're going to be feeding the weeds

that will be coming earlier.

That's not good stuff.

You can have a very huge infestation.

If they want to combine N, P and K in one application,

I would say let's apply right before green-up

or at green up.

Because during that time, we are not too late for P and K,

and we are not too early for nitrogen.

But make sure that you are applying right before the rain.

That's what I do like to recommend.

>>> So then in terms of weed control,

what's your strategy there?

>>> Oh yeah. Weed control is always a hot topic.

Well right now as you can see

we don't have much weeds coming up.

But after this rain and the temperature start warm up,

our spring and also summer weeds is going to come

and start to grow aggressively.

I would say, they always come first than the Bermuda grass.

The Bermuda grass or other tropical grasses

take longer to start to green-up.

So if those grasses is too dormant

and those weeds are growing

and you see that you already have some true leaves,

good biomass from those weeds,

go there and apply a non-selective herbicide.

Even after that, if you see a second flush of weeds,

and still you see that your grasses are still dormant,

you can go and do a second application.

But I will not recommend that they do any application

during the green-up time, for any type of herbicide.

When Bermuda grass or other tropical grasses break dormancy,

they will take about seven to ten days

to completely green-up.

It's a very delicate time for those plants,

so don't apply any herbicide there.

And after the green-up that you see,

that all the Bermuda grasses,

all the tropical grasses are green.

You can go with a selective herbicide and apply them.

There are several herbicides available for that,

but make sure that you apply a herbicide that's labeled

for the fodders that you have in your pasture.

Second, in the right timing and also in the right dose.

And never forget to look for hay

and grazing restrictions, if any.

So that's pretty much my recommendations for now.

>>> So, some great things to think about

for warmer weather, right?

>>> Exactly right.

>>> Okay.

>>> Alex, thanks a lot.

Some great information,

and we'll see you again soon as pastures start to green-up.

>>> Of course.

And for a link to some fact sheets

on the things that Alex talked about

go to sunup.okstate.edu

(guitar music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> For many Oklahoma operations,

we're in the midst of the Spring calving season.

That's a time when we need to

reassess the nutritional status of the cows

because as they go from being a

gestating cow, that's not lactating,

to a cow that is in full lactation,

their nutrient requirements change rather dramatically.

For instance, the protein requirement for a gestating cow,

let's say that's one that's about 1200 pounds

before she calves,

is about 1.9 pounds of crude protein each day.

It increases by 52%,

a full pound,

up to 2.9 pounds of protein needed

for that same cow after she calves,

even though she's probably a 100 pounds lighter.

Her energy requirements also go up rather dramatically.

Percentage-wise, it's not quite as much.

It's about 30% increase in the energy required

for that cow after she calves

than what she was while she was still pregnant.

Therefore, we need to keep in mind that her diet probably

needs to change to some degree,

as she goes into the early part of lactation.

Because we don't want her to loose body condition

between calving and the start of the breeding season.

If she does, it'll just delay her return to estrous

and therefore return, delay her chance to become pregnant

during the upcoming breeding season.

We also want to remember that that lactating cow,

even though she weighs a little bit less,

will consume more feed on a dry matter basis

voluntarily,

than she did before she calved.

However, the increase in what she will consume voluntarily

is only about 20%.

So here we have a situation where her protein requirement

goes up 50, 52%.

Energy requirement goes up 30%.

But her ability to consume feed only increases 20%.

That means to me that we're going to have to

change that diet to where we can meet that energy

and protein needs

by perhaps adding a few more pounds

of the high protein supplement.

In the case of those ranchers that might be feeding

a 30% crude protein supplement,

in order to make up that difference,

we're looking at an increase of about three to

three and a third pounds of that supplement

per head, per day,

for those cows that are now, have the calves at side

and are lactating.

Or we're going to have to increase the quality of the hay

rather dramatically.

Going from grass hay to something like alfalfa hay

in order to make up those needs.

I think the important thing to remember is that we're

in a situation where as these cow's requirements change,

we have to provide the increase in protein and energy

in order for that cow to maintain body condition

through this period between calving and the return

to estrous in the upcoming breeding season.

If you'd like to learn a little bit more about the

nutrient requirements and how they change from

the cow that's gestating to the cow that's lactating,

go to the show links on the Sunup website.

Remember that's just sunup.okstate.edu

Click on the show links,

and we have a link there to a very, very good fact sheet.

974.

It's called "Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle".

It'll let you look at the amounts of those nutrients

that are needed for cattle of, of all different classes.

And we look forward to visiting again with you,

next week on Sunup's Cow-Calf Corner.

(lively music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> Kim Anderson our crop marketing specialist is here now.

Kim, let's start things off this week

by looking at what's happening in the wheat market.

>>> Well, let's back up just a little bit

and start with the value of the dollar.

You looked at, you know you go back,

last fall it peaked at about 103 points.

Right now it's down around 89.5.

We're seen about a 13% decline in the value of the dollar,

and what that does is of course that makes

our wheat cheaper on the world market.

But it also makes Russia's wheat production cost

more expensive relative to the world market.

If you look at wheat prices we got that

80 cent run up in prices, which is relatively good.

Those prices have backed off about 15 cents.

That July contract is right at $5.00.

I'm hoping it stays above that.

If it pops that then we may take

a run back down to that 5.8 that 4.80 mark.

But you gotta watch that pretty close.

If you look at the world wheat crash prices,

they probably increased about 25 cents

over the last week or so.

>>> Then, what does that mean to producers?

>>> Well, what I think it means to producers,

if you're looking at that July contract price

that wheat prices are still below the cost of production.

With that dollar continuing to get a little weaker,

that's gonna make us more competitive on the world market,

so I probably wouldn't fold or contract any wheat

as I'm looking out to the harvest coming up in '18.

>>> Now you're a big promoter of

developing plans for producers.

What plans and strategies do you think

that producers should get in place now?

>>> Well, right now they've gotta look at

how they're gonna sell their wheat.

Are they gonna have wheat to sell,

and if they do, how are they gonna sell it?

Are they gonna try to price any before harvest?

They gonna wait and see the harvest price?

When it gets into harvest, are they gonna sell it then

or at what price would they sell it?

Why would they sell it at harvest decide that now,

and decide if they're gonna

take it out into storage into the fall.

Also I think they need to look at it.

"What if I lose this crop what am I gonna do?"

Look at alternative crops

if they wanna go in with a summer crop.

Also I think they need to evaluate the whole farm situation.

Do they need to change their production mix, their crop mix,

and their planting and production strategies.

>>> Just kind of have a back up plan.

>>> I think just now is a good time to look at an

overall plan for that farm organization.

>>> What is going on in the grain market?

>>> Well, if you look at corn and Sorghum,

on the short run they've got a little rally going.

In the long run it's just kind of sideways.

You look at soybeans, again, short run it's higher.

Long run is flat to slightly higher

just trying to get a little rally in

the long run on the beans.

If you're looking at cotton,

we've had a rally over the last few weeks in.

But you look over the last couple of months

it's pretty much sideways.

>>> Then let's talk about gold.

We don't talk about that a lot but you have some news.

>>> Well, I watch the gold market just to see

what's happening in the general commodity markets.

If you go back to November 15,

gold was a $1,050 an ounce.

It's about $1330 right now,

so you got about a 16% increase in gold.

It's in an uptrend on the intermediate and long term.

Sideways it's kind of moving.

Right now short run it's moving sideways.

But gold right now is working it's way higher.

>>> Okay, so keep that part of the conversation.

Kim, thanks a lot.

(lively music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Hi, I'm Al Sutherland with your Mesonet Weather Report.

This week has been one of fire, rain, and ice.

A large fire started on Sunday east of Freedom.

By Tuesday afternoon the Red Horse fire was no more

thanks to great work by firefighters

and higher humidities on Tuesday.

At noon on Tuesday the relative humidities at Freedom

and Alva were 85%.

An estimated 3600 acres burned Sunday and Monday.

Along with the fire on Monday,

cold air plunged into the state

only to come to a stop over Oklahoma City overnight.

A graph of air temperature and winds from Norman

takes a dip after 5:00 p.m.

as cold air passed the Norman Mesonet tower.

Three hours later close to 8:00 p.m.

the cold air moved back north.

An hour later at 9:00 the cold air was back over Norman

but only for 20 minutes.

It slid north again for a second time,

and stayed that way until 7:30 Tuesday morning.

Then it plowed its way back across Norman

and raced south and east.

By 3:40 Tuesday afternoon only a small tip

in the southeast corner of Oklahoma had air temperatures

in the 60s and 70s.

The rest of the state

was dealing with air temperatures in the 30s and 20s.

Cattle Comfort Index temperatures

were frigid behind the front, from the teens to minus-eight

in the Panhandle Tuesday morning.

Mangum was 63 degrees at five minutes before 8:00 a.m.

65 minutes later at 9:00 a.m.,

the Cattle Comfort temperature had dropped 50 degrees

to 13 at Mangum.

For cattle, it wasn't just the cold that caused them stress;

heavy rains soaked their hair coat.

Radar indicated heavy rain

on both sides of the blue freeze line

in Central Oklahoma on Tuesday morning.

That rain was followed by ice.

The moisture added to the cold stress

from low temperatures and wind.

The positive in all of this rain and winter mix

was all the moisture we received over the state.

In the 24 hours up to 7:30 Tuesday night,

green areas of the state had received

more than an inch of rain.

There was even a dark green band

where more than three inches of rain fell.

This map shows only the moisture

from the first round of rain on Tuesday.

It doesn't show water from melted ice

or rain at the end of this week.

Cold, freezing weather stalls plant development,

but plants will take off again

as soon as a few warmer days return.

Wheat first hollow stem heat units had pushed the green line

that indicates the time to check early group wheat varieties

for first hollow stem far to the north

in a line from Tulsa to Woodward by Monday.

For middle group varieties,

the green line was one to two counties

north of the Red River through Monday, February 19th.

We hope you get enough ice melt and rain

to ease drought for you and your neighbors.

Thanks for joining us for this edition

of the Mesonet Weather Report.

(light upbeat guitar music)

 

Soil elements

>>> To the classroom now, and the 16 essential nutrients

that plants need from the soil.

Here's Brian Arnall.

>>> When I talk about soil fertility recommendations,

I'll often mention that nitrogen and phosphorus

as plant-essential nutrients,

but I haven't really gotten into

what makes a nutrient plant-essential.

So, for a nutrient to be considered plant-essential,

it has to meet three criteria.

First is that the plant cannot and will not

complete its life cycle if that nutrient is absent.

And completing a life cycle

is basically going through reproduction,

whether that's setting seed, rhizome,

or making it through winter if it's a perennial.

So, one, it has to be able to complete its life cycle.

Two, it cannot be replaced.

So, this means that let's say a nutrient is deficient

or there is no phosphorus in the soil.

You can't add potassium and make it better.

So, if the replacement or if there's something else

that can replace that nutrient,

it shouldn't be considered plant-essential.

Now, the third and final is that that nutrient

needs to be involved in plant processes.

So, we know that nitrogen is used in chlorophyll

and amino acids and that potassium's used in stomata

and that phosphorus is basically ATP and ADP

using that energy source.

It needs to be involved,

so the nutrient needs to be involved.

And it has to meet all three criteria.

It can't just meet two or three.

Now, when we start talking about plant-essential nutrients

as far as scientists goes and educators,

it can get really challenging.

If you go out on the internet and google it,

Plant-essential nutrients, you're gonna come up with a list

of 15 to 18 plant-essential nutrients,

and that is a little bit because these three criteria

may be measured differently.

Also, there may be a nutrient that is essential

for let's say saltwater grasses

that is not needed by anything else.

So, one of the criteria I add is that it's all plants,

when I go into the teaching, that it's all plants need it.

So, life cycle, replace,

involved in process, and all plants.

Now, that brings me to what I teach in class,

16 plant-essential nutrients.

Now, those 16 plant-essential nutrients

are broken up into four primary categories.

The first one that's not talked about a lot is our HCO:

hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.

Our next three that we call macros are N, P, and K,

or nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

These are the macros.

We get into our secondaries,

our secondaries are calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.

Our third category is micronutrients.

In those micronutrients we have iron,

zinc, manganese, copper, chloride, boron, and molybdenum.

When we talk about the nutrient types,

we have macros, secondaries, and micros.

That's not referring to the importance

of any of these nutrients because

to be considered essential, it has to meet those criteria.

It has to be essential, the plants have to have it.

This is more about the concentrations

that the plant needs or the totals that the plant needs.

In our N, P, and K, this is called

the macro or a primary because it's

needed in the highest quantities.

This is the 16.

The other three nutrients that you can hear

are gonna be sodium, silica, and nickel.

Depending on where you're at and what crop species,

the silica is needed in some salt species.

There's many weeds that are gonna need the sodium

but it's not all plants.

While I teach the class and tell them about these three,

they aren't considered in the primary

16 plant essential nutrients.

If you wanna know about plant essential nutrients,

check out the SUNUP website at www.sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat country music)

 

Food Whys

>>> Renee Nelson, our milling and baking specialist

is here now to talk about the new Home Baking Act.

Renee, give us a little idea of

what the purpose of this act is.

>>> The purpose of the Home Baking Act

established in 2013, the first one,

was to allow a home baker to be able to

sell a product that they bake at their home.

Someone could come and pick it up

and they wouldn't have to have a inspected kitchen

or a commercial kitchen.

>>> And there have been some changes

and it's been updated.

Tell us a little bit about what's been going on.

>>> In 2017, the law was amended and

it went into effect November 1st of last year.

What happened is it allowed more leeway

for the home baker to sell their product.

Before they were allowed to only sell it at their home.

Someone had to come pick it up.

Now they can bake it at their home

and take it to a farmer's market to be sold.

They can take it off premises.

They can still sell it at their home

or they can sell it on the internet and mail

it within the state of Oklahoma.

They can also have a chance of selling it

at a food cooperative like the Oklahoma Food Co-Op

or a local group of membership-based group that says,

hey I wanna dessert of the month group.

They can sell it in something like that.

>>> It opens it up a little bit more.

>>> Yes.

>>> In terms of food safety,

what are some things that you're advising

home bakers to keep in mind as they

kind of maybe grow their business?

>>> The home baker is not required to

put an ingredient statement on their label.

They can put the name and their location

and they're some requirements of that.

But they do not have to put an ingredient statement.

There's a lot of creative home bakers

and we have a lot of new creative products out

that you can get at the store.

Let's say you're a home baker and you want to

add a nutty flavor to your chocolate chip cookies

and you say hey, I'll add some almond flour.

A normal person that maybe has allergens

to tree nuts wouldn't even think to ask

about what's in the chocolate chip cookie

if they're not seeing a nut.

The home bakers put in the almond flour,

maybe they forget to tell.

There's just a few little issues there.

It would be nicer if people would just

add an ingredient statement.

>>> Go the extra mile there?

>>> Yeah, yeah.

>>> There's probably a lot of people wanting more information.

You'll be hosting some workshops

and you put together a fact sheet.

Give us some information about that process.

>>> We're holding some workshops at FAPCI

and throughout the state.

The first one is March 29th.

People can come ask questions,

get some hints or some feedback on economy.

Maybe you have a real successful home baking business

and how do you grow from there?

And some food safety tips, and lots of things.

We have a new fact sheet called the

new Oklahoma Home Baking Act of 2017

and there's some guidelines there to help out.

>>> Thanks a lot Renee.

For a link to the workshops and the fact sheet

that Renee mentioned, go to sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat country music)

 

>>> That'll do it for us this week.

A reminder, SUNUP will be on a break

the next three Saturdays because

of special programming on OETA.

But you can see us Sundays at 6am

and of course anytime on our Youtube channel.

I'm Lyndall Stout, we'll see you again soon.

(upbeat country music)

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