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Oklahoma State University
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Transcript for June 10, 2017

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments:

  • Summer Crops Update
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Soil on Slopes
  • Vet Scripts: How to tell if your cattle are sick
  • Market Monitor
  • Cow-Calf Corner


 (upbeat guitar music) 

Summer Crops Update

>>> Hello, everyone, and welcome to Sunup, I'm Lyndall Stout.

 Oklahoma producers are busy harvesting their wheat and canola crops,

and they're also thinking about the progress of their summer crops,

and there have been some challenges.

 Here to talk about it is Josh Lofton, our Extension Cropping Systems Specialist,

and Josh, we're here in your research plot.

 Tell us about some of the challenges you've had.

>>> Well, our challenges in the program have been no different than the growers around the state.

 We've dealt with some really nice conditions,

really early in the planting season.

 A lot of guys throughout the state have got corn in on time,

and got it up and growing real well,

and then essentially the good conditions went away.

 We were either really, really cold,

we were too wet, too dry,

and we've gone through these cycles of being one of the three of those,

and so, our program, as well as the growers around the state,

have kind of met the same thing.

 The good news is, is that, from what I've heard around the state,

the rest of the corn has kind of gone in, sorghum's kind of on that last leg.

 We're starting to get soybeans rolling and moving around, especially on the eastern part of the state,

it's been a little more challenging, but the good news is we're up and rolling with a lot of our summer crops.

 And you can see here,

it's kind of really taken advantage of these timely rains,

and now this really warm weather, to kind of, let the crop get off and get going.

>>> Tell us about what's happened in this field.

 It's a little spotty.

 I think that's how you've described it.

>>> Yeah, so what we have in this field is something we've had across the state,

and that's been these spotty stands.

 And it's something we've talked about at field days,

previous Sunup spots and all that,

is the spotty nature of some of our crops.

 This could happen due to a couple reasons.

 We could have variable temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture,

which has caused some of the crop to do really well and some of the crop to still be in its seed form down in the soil.

  And sometimes in a conventional setting,

it's been because we've had a nice soil,

it's rained really hard and we've gotten a crust,

and that's something we always worry about, planting right ahead of a rainfall event in conventional systems, however,

 it's not only been conventional, our no-till's seen the same thing.

 And that's where we run into those soil moisture and soil temperature issues,

especially since it got so cold in April.

 Those no-till systems are usually hold onto water a lot longer

and they're usually a lot colder,

 and especially when we get a lot of moisture onto that residue,

if you have residue like wheat straw,

or last year's corn or milo's residue, it can hold onto water a lot longer than the soil,

so we've had hair-pinning issues and various things among.

 The good thing is, is for most of our milo growers,

we're able to take advantage of those skippy spots

because of the flexibility of the crop.

 And so we've kind of told a lot of guys that have stands that look like this,

to where you have these big periods of kind of gaps,

as long as it's kind of evenly distributed through the field,

you're going to be okay.

 Our corn is the same way.

 It has that flex-ear characteristic,

to where if it has a lot more light and a lot more moisture,

a lot more soil to work with, those ears go from normal ears to really big ears.

 And so we have that flex characteristic.

 Soybeans the same way,

so we have flexibility in our summer crops,

to where if you have even skippy stands throughout the field, you're probably going to be okay.

 There are some spots that we've had in some of our trials,

to where the skippiness has been a lot bigger.

 We've had that in fields and we've gone ahead and told producers that if they wanted to overseed what they already have,

 I really don't like to kill a crop,

once it's up and going, but if they wanted to kind of even out that stand,

go in and over-seed that crop in those really big skips,

 and then kind of let the crop take care of the little ones around the rest of the field.

>>> Fill in a few of those gaps.

>>> Yeah.

>>> Let's talk about the migration of insects, and kind of,

what you're seeing, and what to put on people's radar the next few weeks,

and for the rest of the summer.

>>> Well, it's something that growers aren't going to want to hear,

but it's the sugarcane aphid.

 We have to be kind of wary of that.

 We've seen them move a lot more than they have the early part of the season,

and the most recent weeks.

 If you go to Google and you search myfields,

it's a website put on by Texas A&M, they keep track of aphids around the nation.

  It's growers like myself and Tom Royer and our county agents.

 They call and they officially say that they found aphids,

and they put them on that map.

So you can kind of see where the aphids are moving.

 They moved into that central North Texas area, so they are coming into Oklahoma.

 How fast they're going to jump over that Red River, only time will tell.

 But it's something that once your sorghum stand gets up a little bit more;

 we're a little young yet still here,

but once we get kind of in that boot stage and we start to see that head migrating up

and be more susceptible,

that's when growers need to put boots on the ground and really get out there.

 And it's not to say that it's not the same in all of our other crops.

 Last year was a really big year for Lepidoptera

 and our soy beans and our sorghum and our corn,

we don't know if it's going to be that way again this year or not.

 It was in some of our winter crops, so the Lepidoptera or the caterpillars are out there.

 We just have to make sure that we're getting into the field,

putting boots on the ground, and actually scouting all those crops.

>>> And we have these warmer, windy days, so I bet that movement North, it won't be too long.

>>> Well, it can very well help that move and help them spread a lot faster than they would on maybe a calm,

no-wind day in the Great Plains; that rarely happens, though.

>>> Exactly.

 Josh, thanks for the update, and we'll see you again soon.

>>> Thank you.

>>> And for a link to that website that Josh mentioned, we'll be glad to put it on the Sun Up

 (calm bluegrass music) 


Mesonet Weather

>>> The corn is silking in Chickasha.

 One of the ways to track corn maturity is with The Mesonet Degree Day Heat Unit Calculator.

 Here's a table of degree day heat units for corn planted on March 24th.

 At Breckinridge, 952 heat units have accumulated by June 6th.

 At Chickasha, where the corn was beginning to silk, 1,063 heat units had accumulated.

  Ardmore shows why crops mature earlier in Southern Oklahoma.

 Ardmore heat units as of June 6th were 1,249.

  On June 6th, while the other two sites collected 25 heat units, Ardmore had 27.

  We're getting more warm days, with a cooler, wetter May, many of us are not acclimated for summer's intense heat.

 The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature provides a human heat index

categorized for outdoor activity in full sun.

 For Tuesday, the maxiumum Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was in the low risk green category across most of Oklahoma.

 If you exercise or work when conditions are low risk, you'll sweat a lot,

 and safely build your heat acclimation.

 It takes seven to 10 days to get fully acclimated to the heat,

with one to two hours of daily outdoor activity.

 As day is warm into the higher-risk categories,

being acclimated to the heat will let you work or exercise outdoors longer with less risk of heat stress.

  Here's Gary with a look at long-term rainfall.

>>> Well thanks, Allen.

 Good morning, everyone.

 After weeks and weeks and weeks, let's just say months,

of promising a clear drought map,

we finally got that, and now, unfortunately we're starting to see some of those colors creep back into the map.

 Let's take a look at the latest map and see where we're at.

 The good news is we have no drought still in Oklahoma.

 Still holding strong, but we are starting to see that abnormally dry yellow color creep into  Southern parts of the state,

so far Southwest Oklahoma, South Central and Southeastern Oklahoma are now in that yellow, abnormally dry area,

and that signifies areas that are possibly starting to head towards drought and let's take a look why.

 This is the Departure from Normal Rainfall map for the last 30 days, May 8th to June 6th.

 We can see those areas that are in danger.

 Far Southwest Oklahoma, two and a half inches below normal.

 Same thing for South Central Oklahoma.

 Southeast Oklahoma doesn't look bad,

but go out on a farther time scale.

 We go out to the last 90 days,

we can see again that the South Central area of the state is dangerously close to drought

with about 60% of normal in Love County over the last 90 days.

  Those are the areas that we're worried about.

 June has been a bit of a disappointment in those areas thus far,

but if we get just a little bit more rainfall before summer,

we can stave off any type of drought, whether it be flash drought,

or a longer developing drought.

 So let's hope we get some of that normal rainfall for June.

Uh, before the really warm weather gets here.

 That's it for this time.

 We'll see you next time on the Mesonet Weather Report.

 (banjo and harmonica playing) 


Soil on Slopes

>>> Another stop here in Lahoma has been the soil samples.

 And Jason, what have you been talking to producers about?

>>> Oh, I've just been discussing the differences in soil type

and how both the landscape position

and then the soil profile characteristics influence the productivity of soil

and the erosivity

and then the potential for improving the soil as a result of management,

and again, how is that different across the landscape.

>>> And you have some really cool examples here.

 These have been taken at different elevations, correct?

>>> Yeah, different locations, different elevations.

 These two, this one on the left and this one on the right came from here at Lahoma.

 And this one on the left, it's what we call an upland soil.

 So, I took it at the top of the hill.

 And it's got a nice loaming material at the surface.

 And then as you increase in depth, it picks up clay content,

and that's because clay is being washed over time through this surface, down into the subsoil.

 And then in some cases,

you'll have the subsoil is actually formed from like the clay rock 

and it ends up with a lot of clay.

 In contrast, this soil over here came from a lowland area near a creek.

 And this soil is material that deposited over geologic time by that creek.

 And you can see that here in this layer of sand, right there at about 18 inches.

 And in some soils, you'll actually find a buried surface like what we have over there on the table.

 And so, the productivity is very much different between these two.

 Water and roots and air move very freely through this nice loaming material all the way down to four feet.

 In contrast, at the upland soil,

you don't have as much water moving through it cause it's at the top of the hill

for one thing

and then that water has much more trouble  moving down because of this heavy clay.

 Well now, the ones in the middle, they came from Morrison just next door to my house.

 And this is what we call a renfrow clay loam.

 And so, in the subsoil, it's actually very, very clay.

 And you can tell on camera by how much it's cracked.

 And what's really interesting is this soil that I'm pointing at,

it came from a sloping area.

 This is native soil that's never been cultivated and it's currently under grass.

 And then, this is the same soil but it's up on a flat area, actually up on top of the hill.

 And to here is, from the surface down to where my finger is what we'd call topsoil.

 You can see how nice and dark it is?

>>> Right.

>>> And then here is about the bottom of the topsoil in this example.

 And so, you can see in these flat areas,

even on an upland where you have grass that's been there for a long time,

you'll accumulate all this nice dark material.

 It's nice and loamy and very productive.

 And then you put a slope on it,

even the grass isn't quite as productive,

so that dark, organic matter layer doesn't penetrate as well.

 And then, this one was down in a creek bottom.

 And although it's dark, it's pretty heavy clay even up to right here.

>>> [Dave] And you actually have another example over here at this table.

>>> Yeah, one last example that's really cool is this is an alluvial soil,

again, taken next to the creek.

 And this is the actual surface.

 And it's a very beautiful silt loam soil.

>>> [Dave] Right.

>>> Very productive.

 But what's really cool about it, and again, you see this sand layer here.

 And then when you move to the very bottom down here, about four feet it gets real dark.

 And that dark layer is an actual buried soil.

 So, at one time or another, everything below my fingers was the surface of the earth and there was grass laying, growing on it.

 And we can tell that by how dark it is.

 And then, the three feet of material above it was deposited over time from the creek bottom.

>>> Okay, thank you much, Jason.

 And for more information, go to our website,

 (upbeat music) 


Vet Scripts: How to tell if your cattle are sick

>>> While I was in practice,

sometimes people that were new to the cattle business

had some problems with figuring out when their animals were sick.

 Well, a few years ago, Dr. Dee Griffin who works at West Texas A&M University sent me some information.

>>> How he trained people in feed lots 

to detect animals were sick, and it's based upon the acronym DART, D-A-R-T.

  D stands for depressed,

A stands for appetite,

R stands for respiration,

and T stands for temperature.

 So when we look for an animal that's depressed,

initially we would probably see some real subtle signs.

 Maybe droopy ears,

 maybe the head a little bit lower than those that are in that same group.

 As he progresses and it gets worse,

 course he's gonna separate himself from the herd,

he's gonna probably appear to be sore, so they'll lay around a lot.

 When we go to looking at appetite,

we always have to keep in mind,

sick animals don't like to eat,

so if you've got an animal that's refusing to eat,

that's a clue that you've got a problem.

 When we look at respiration,

we need to focus on,

cattle are gonna take about 10 to 30 breaths per minute.

 We're gonna have an inspiration, an expiration, and a pause

that should all take about the same amount of time.

 If you see increases in time for inspiration or expiration,

that's a clue that something's wrong.

 If you see these animals with their mouths open when they breath,

that's another clue,

look at the nasal passages, make sure they're clean,

that you don't have any discharge from them or the eyes.

 Make sure you don't hear any noises when these animals are breathing.

 All of these would be clues that you've got something wrong in that respiratory tract.

 The last thing you wanna look at would be temperature.

 Obviously, we can't take the temperatures out in the pasture,

but if you have these animals up,

what we're looking for is a temperature that's probably 103 and a half to 104 degrees or above.

  You do need to take that temperature probably as early in the morning as possible.

 If we get late in the afternoon,

and if we're on hot days, that temperature's gonna be normally high anyway.

 For more information about the DART system, you'll go to

 (upbeat music) 


Market Monitor

>>> Kim Anderson, our crop marketing specialist joins us now.

 Kim, as some producers start to wind down harvest,

you're getting some questions.

 What are they asking you?

>>> They're asking about, what's the yields in production in Oklahoma and around the world,

and what's gonna happen to price?

>>> Well, let's start with yields and production.

>>> Well, yields, that's the easy one in southern Oklahoma, probably below expectations.

 In northern Oklahoma, probably come in around expectations,

maybe slightly below.

 We'll have to wait and see what happens in Kansas.

>>> Now, prices have gone up about 80 cents in the last month or so.


And will it continue?

>>> First, I gotta say I predict in 3.75 at harvest.

 We're in harvest, and we've got about 3.80, so I'm feeling good about that.

 I think 20 cents of that has been an increase in the basis.

 Elevators want to buy the wheat now.

 They wanna get it in the bin.

 They want the farmers to get it in their bin, and they wanna buy it now,

so they've raised the basis,

and then the other 60 cents is Kansas City July contract price increase,

and I think that's because of weather.

>>> Now, when harvest is complete,

let's talk about some of the strategy options,

and you, like the professor that you are, you've kinda outlined that for us.

>>> Well, the strategy's gonna depend on what your price expectations are.

 You know, our price is gonna continue to go up.

 Are they gonna go down? And there's a 50/50 chance they're gonna go one way or the other.

 Now, you look at the strategies.

 If I don't wanna take the risk of lower prices, and the risk is probably,

they could fall $1.20, sell it all now.

 Another one would be if you think prices are gonna go up,

there's a possibility it could go up $2, another $2.50, so you may wanna store into the November time period.

 You may want to sell it, and then buy the future's market.

 You know, do a hedge, or to replace what you sold with a hedge.

 You may wanna do a storage hedge,

or you may want to sell increments over time at 33rd and a third.

>>> To study these a little closer,

let's talk first about selling and harvest.

 What are the advantages and disadvantages?

>>> Well, it's gonna cost you about six cents a month to store the wheat,

five cents for commercial storage a penny interest.

 If you're looking to storing it to November, that's about 30 cents.

 If the current price is $3.80, that means the prices have to be $4.20 in November before you start making any money.

 So, sell it now, stop that storage and interest.

 You've got the money, you can put it in the bank.

 You don't have to worry about it anything.

>>> What about storing, and then selling in November?

Well, you've got that 30-cent storage and interest cost.

 In other words, the price has to go up to $4.20 before you start making any money, if you store it to November.

 Right now, the market has carry in it, says it's gonna increase about 42 cents.

So the market's telling you you've got 12 cents potential profit there.

 But we know how the market reacts.

>>> Then storing and then covering the price risk with a futures contract.

>>> Right, so I sell the wheat and I buy the board to cover the wheat that I sold.

 It's essentially you're selling at $3.80 and you're buying that wheat back at 42 cents higher.

 You're already giving up 42 cents.

 To me, that's a little questionable on whether you want to do that.

 It might work,

but I'd say it's questionable this year with the relatively high bases and the carry in the market.

>>> And then the increment strategy.

>>> Well, selling a third now, or a half now,

or a fourth and a fourth,

or a third and a third and a third.

 Selling in increments is going to give you,

it's not going to give you the highest price,

it's not going to give you the lowest price, but it's going to give you an average.

 You're spreading it over time.

 If prices go down, you sold some.

 If prices go up, you've got some to sell.

>>> You have been strategizing for a lot of years.

 Which one is your favorite?

>>> Personally, I like to put my eggs in more than one basket.

 I would sell a third now,

a third in September, October,

and then the final third in November, December time period.

 I won't be right about where the price goes up and down,

 but if it goes up I can take advantage of it.

 If it goes down, I sold some.

 I'm always right.

>>> Somehow I knew that would be your favorite.

 Kim, thanks a lot.

 We'll see you next week.

 (light country music) 


Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Summertime is a time of the year when cow-calf producers all across the Midwest

will perhaps struggle with a problem called eye infections of cattle.

 Usually we're talking about the disease organism that we commonly call pinkeye.

 It's a bacteria that gets in the eye and causes some real problems.

 The bacteria Moraxella bovis,

easy for me to say,

 it's one of those that is easily transmitted from animal to animal

by various causes, usually by flies.

  So understanding this process, I think is very, very important.

 Therefore, I want to encourage you to go to the Sunup website,

  Look under Show Links.

 We've got a link there to an excellent fact sheet

written by some of our OSU veterinarians and animal scientists

about this disease entity, pink eye,

some of the treatment methods that may be necessary,

as well as some preventative methods.

 In addition to that fact sheet,

there's some information about pink eye that I thought I'd share with you today.

 Iowa State University did a study in the years 2003 through 2005  on their herds at the university,

as well as some crop breeder herds.

 They were wanting to look at the genetic component of being predisposed to eye infections or pink eye.

 By looking at the data from those herds over that period of time,

what they found was the heritability estimate for chances of getting pink eye is really pretty low.

 It's 0.11.

  That's pretty discouraging to me in terms of we probably can't make real progress

just selecting for cattle that we think are less prone to pink eye.

 Or the other way around, culling those that have the problem and not keeping their heifers.

 Also, in that study, they looked at the tears of those cattle that were infected with pink eye,

and did find that there was a relationship between the immunoglobulin A, 

one of the major antibodies that's in cattle's bodies,

 and the relationship of that particular level of immunoglobulin and the disease pink eye.

 That tells me that cattle that are well nourished,

properly vaccinated, and have an active immune system, 

are going to be less likely to come down with pink eye

than counterparts that perhaps are underfed,

or not immunized properly.

 So you may want to keep that in mind as well.

 So as we summarize this discussion of pink eye,

 go and look at that fact sheet that we talked about earlier.

 Go to the website,

download that,

 and you'll learn a lot more about preventing and treating pink eye.

 Also, I think we could only make very, very slow progress

by selecting cattle that are less prone to it,

or culling those that have had the problem in the past.

 It may be one of those things that,

as you cull cows next fall,

or select the replacement heifers,

that if there's another trait that you don't like about that individual,

plus the fact that they had pink eye this summer.

May be a reason to go ahead and add them to the call list.

 I think that we can get a better understanding

and work with our management system,

our veterinarian, and try to decrease the incidents of pinkeye in our herds this way.

 We look forward to visiting with you next week on Sunup's Cow-Calf Corner.

 (upbeat music) 


>>> That will do it for us this week.

 Remember you can find us anytime online at

and also follow us on youtube and social media.

 I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone and remember Oklahoma agriculture starts at Sunup.

 (upbeat music) 

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