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Transcript for February 11, 2017

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments:

  • The Science Behind Dual-Purpose Wheat
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Thinking About Farmers Markets or Agritourism?
  • Cow-Calf Corner: Stages of Calving
  • Ag Apps
  • Market Monitor
  • Shop Stop


(upbeat music) 


The Science Behind Dual-Purpose Wheat

>>> Hello, everyone, and welcome to Sunup.

 I'm Lyndall Stout.

 I'm standing here in a field laboratory where scientists study a number of things about wheat varieties,

including how they respond to grazing cattle.

 Joining us now is David Marburger, our extension small grain specialist, and David,

give us an idea of what you and the team have set up out here.

 What's this field like?

>>> So this field out here is our small grains forage variety trial,

so a number of the varieties that have been entered into the performance trials that you see around the state,

this is one of the locations where we are assessing forage growth for these different wheat varieties.

 And not only wheat varieties, but also a few triticale varieties and a couple barley varieties.

>>> [Lyndall] In addition to current varieties, there are future varieties out here as well.

>>> Yeah, so we are actually examining some experimental varieties from Dr. Carver, some of his more elite lines,

those that if they can make the cut, they can potentially become a variety.

 We actually have a couple out here that are being proposed to become a variety for this year.

>>> [Lyndall] You and the team are out here with the clippers in the field.

 Tell us what's going on today.

>>> So we've taken actually clippings at several different times,

 and we actually started on the beginning of the growing season,

so those clippings there were to assess the amount of forage growth that we had throughout the early fall.

 And then at the time, we had actually come through after we had taken our clippings,

and we had come through here with a mower to try and simulate grazing,

and then see after that, how do these varieties respond in terms of forage growth after that grazing?

And so right now, we're actually kinda taking our potentially what might be our final clipping date right here before first hollow stem,

where some of these varieties will begin releasing from dormancy and begin to really sprout up and really green up.

 But that's not to say that, given kinda the current market conditions this year,

with a lotta producers wanting to just go ahead and graze out,

we may keep this field a little bit longer than we normally have in the past and try and assess forage growth for these different wheat varieties later in the growing season.

>>> You mentioned coming out here and mowing.

 Why is it important to kinda get down on your hands and knees and clip at that level at this stage?

>>> Well, for that, we are trying to assess the amount of forage growth right now at this clipping,

so we need to get to a spot at least that's gonna be consistent for each variety,

and right now they're just clipping right at the sole surface.

 That way, we're trying to minimize any potential variability.

 That's the point of this is trying to minimize variability between these different varieties so that we can make confident assessments when we say one variety might be a better forage producer than another variety.

>>> What happens next?

Where do these bags go next, and what do you guys do with them?

>>> [David] So we're gonna take these bags to the dryer,

and we're gonna dry them out.

 We're gonna go ahead and we're gonna weigh them.

 And then we're gonna take that weight,

given the plot size, and we'll convert that into something that's useful for the farmer,

and we'll give them an assessment of dry pounds of forage per acre.

>>> And then that translates into planning for next year's planting and beyond.

>>> So the current report that we usually put out is our fall forage report,

coupled with our first hollow stem measurements for these different varieties.

 So when we collect all of our forage estimates,

 we'll get that data, plus the first hollow stem measurements from this year.

 We'll put that together in our publication that we can give out for growers who are making their variety selections for next year.

>>> Let's talk about first hollow stem and where we are across the state.

>>> So, actually, first hollow stem is actually creeping up a little bit earlier than normal, especially from last year.

 I actually looked like at some of the heat units, at least compared to last year.

 And even here, and even at Chickasha, where we have this particular experiment replicated,

we're about seven days, seven to 10 days ahead of where we were last year in terms of those heat units.

 So because of that, you're starting to see, at least in the southern part of the state,

where we were at Chickasha actually yesterday, a couple of those varieties, those varieties that are early the first hollow stem,

they're starting to release from dormancy.

 So growers who are going to,

who are grazing and they are gonna go out and move those cattle and let it go to grain,

now's the time to be getting out there and start scouting for first hollow stem if you have one of those earlier varieties.

 If you have a medium to a later variety,

you might have a little bit of time yet, but it is time to start thinking about that.

>>> And then of course, we could all, everybody's thinking about rain and we could really use some.

>>> Exactly, the rains that we caught in mid-January were very helpful to kinda keep us and get us through kinda the rest of winter here.

 But now, the temperatures are starting to warm up around much of the state

and these varieties are going to start releasing from dormancy and they're beginning to grow.

 And when they begin to grow here is really when they start using a lot of water so we could use some rain because,

again, that wheat's gonna wick up a lot of that soil moisture that we already have right now.

>>> Well good luck with the research.

 And we would love to have you back when all the data is complete to see how it went.

>>> Alright, thank you.

>>> David, thanks a lot.

 (country music) 


Mesonet Weather

>>> How do you use weather information?

Do you just watch a forecast,

do you go by how cold or hot, wet or dry it feels like?

Whether data from the Oklahoma Mesonet takes and added important with the roller coaster weather we've been experiencing.

 Mesonet weather data let's us stay on top of how the weather is driving crop maturity and animal health.

 Even with the cold snaps, wheat maturity is advancing rapidly.

 On a map of wheat first hollow stem through Tuesday,

the likelihood of early group wheat varieties having reached the first hollow stem stage had advanced far across the state.

 Checking for first hollow stem is recommended when an area changes from blue to green on the map.

 Once an area is red,

the chances are above 50% that wheat has reached first hollow stem.

 If you wanna harvest that wheat for grain,

red means it's time to move cattle out of those fields.

 For wheat varieties in the middle first hollow stem group,

the green and red areas were much farther south on Tuesday.

 But even for this middle group, we've seen a lot of advancement from last week.

 For varieties in the late group,

the need to check for first hollow stem was showing up in the far southeast on Tuesday.

 Changes in temperature and wind caused a real swing in cattle comfort index numbers.

 On Tuesday, the cattle comfort index went above 80 at many sites in central and eastern Oklahoma.

  With yellow indicating mild heat stress.

 A map from Wednesday morning was mostly blue showing mild cold stress,

for locations in central and western Oklahoma,

it was common to find a 60 degree swing in cattle comfort index  from Tuesday afternoon to Wednesday morning.

 At a Apache, the swing in cattle comfort index values went from 80 on Tuesday afternoon to a low of 11 on Wednesday morning.

 That's a swing of 69 degrees,

at Weatherford, the swing was even more, 72 degrees, from 78 Tuesday to 6 Wednesday.

  Rapid changes in temperature make outdoor animals more susceptible to health issues.

 How dry has it been,

here's a map of rainfall over 14 days from January 25th to February 8th.

  Rainfall numbers were drops of water collected during foggy mornings.

 We actually have to go back 30 days from Wednesday to get any meaningful rainfall amounts.

 These totals were a combination of ice melt and rain from the mid-January ice storm.

 At first glance, a slow moisture map of the percent of plant available water from the surface down to 16 inches doesn't look too bad across the state.

 We see a lot of dark green colors indicating good soil moisture,

but scattered throughout that green are lighter shades and percents in the 50 to 60 percent range.

These measurements were from soils under dormant grasses,

not from growing wheat and canola fields.

 Down deeper from the surface to 32 inches we see a lot more yellow colors indicating drier soils across the state.

With chances for rain ahead,

we hope you get a good dose of needed rain and let Mesonet's Weather Data give you a clear weather picture.

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Thinking About Farmers Markets or Agritourism?

>>> It's almost farmer's market season and more people than ever are interested in buying and selling fresh fruits and vegetables and other products.

 For perspective, here's our Extension Community Development Specialist, Dave Shideler.

>>> So farmer's markets are part of a broader phenomenon happening nationwide, this movement to go back to locally-sourced foods,

and that movement is being driven by a couple of things and farmer's markets play a special role in that.

  One of the drivers of this is just a connection, a social connection between people

and so people wanting to know who grows their farms and re-building the community fabric,

and so the farmer's market plays a unique role in that because obviously you get to interact with the farmer or the farmer's family when you're at the market.

 So that's one of the things driving farmer's markets.

 Another interest of farmer's markets,

particularly here in Oklahoma, is the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables,

we've got a lot of places in our state that are more than 10 miles away from a grocery store that provides fresh fruits and vegetables

and might refer to them as food deserts.

 There are folks in Extension on the nutrition side looking at farmer's markets as a possible way of providing fresh fruits and vegetables in those communities,

and so we're looking at it from that perspective, and then third is just the fact that it opens up a new market channel to farmers,

so farmer's markets  typically have higher prices for some of their commodities

and so this could be a new revenue stream,

but even if prices are the same between the farmer's market and the grocery store, you're eliminating the whole distribution and retailing aspect,

so the farmer's taking home much more of the dollar spent than he would if he's selling wholesale.

 So over the last three years, I've received a USDA grant to study the economics of local production.

 One of the things that we were finding is communities really were starting to embrace this idea of a farmer's market,

looking at it as a way of kind of reengaging with consumers,

but also thinking more broadly on the political spectrum,

thinking of maybe  we have lost something in terms of the social connectivity in our communities

and so wanting to encourage that,

the Oklahoma Farmer's Market and Agritourism Conference is gonna be February 23rd in Oklahoma City at the Embassy Suites downtown.

 The conference is really designed to provide some hands-on training for vendors,

o growers that are selling at farmer's markets,

so everything from marketing practices to actual ways of diversifying your crops,

to extend your growing season,

and then as well as some  safety regulation training as well.

 (folksy music) 


Cow-Calf Corner: Stages of Calving

>>> We're in the midst of this year's spring calving season,

it's a good time to refresh your memories about the three different stages of calving.

 You know, we've talked about this in the past,

the first stage being that that takes place something in the neighborhood of two as much as 24 hours prior to the actual delivery process.

 Stage one, the big thing that's happening is the dilation of the cervix inside the heifer or the cow.

 Stage three of calving is that that we hope will happen,

something around eight to 12 hours after calving

and that's the shedding of the fetal membranes,

the release of the placenta, and some ranchers may call it the cleaning of the cow, and if it doesn't happen in about 12 hours,

then it's probably time to visit your local large animal veterinarian about proper treatment for that retained placenta.

 That leaves stage two, that's where really all the action is.

 And I think it's important that we understand how long stage two in a normal delivery should take place.

  And there's research data that helps us on this particular subject.

 Research done up in Montana and here at Oklahoma State University has looked at both mature cows,

 those that have had calves before, as well as first-calf heifers.

 In the Montana data, they looked at 31 mature cows and kept track of the time from which they first saw the appearance of the water bag until the baby calf was delivered completely out on the ground

and on the average in those adult cows, that timeframe was only 22 1/2 minutes.

In the case of first-calf heifers,

obviously that birth canal hasn't been stretched out with previous calvings,

and so it does take longer.

 As we look again, Montana data,

and the Oklahoma State University data,

virtually identical, one of 'em 54 minutes, the other an average 55 minutes.

 Over quite a number a head of cattle that they watched very very closely.

 Okay this gives us then some guidelines as to,

 as we're watching a cow or heifer during this calving season to see if we need to get her up and give her some assistance.

 In that adult cow,

I'd say the rule of thumb is a half an hour.

 If she's not making real progress in a half of an hour,

we better check to see if we've got a problem that needs some correction, and give that cow some assistance.

 In that first-calf heifer, then I'd use the rule of thumb of about one hour.

 Again if we're watching her and she's not making real progress with each strain,

then we probably better check to see if we've got a backwards calf,

perhaps a calf that's just too large for her to deliver.

 Several different problems that can occur.

 But that gives us a guideline by which we can make the decision that it's time to get her up

and do the examination to see what kind of help we need to give that particular cow or heifer during this calving season.

 And again, if you'd like to learn more about working with these cattle at calving time,

I encourage you to go to the SUNUP website.

 Look under Show Links.

 We have a link there to the, a brochure, it's called calving time management for beef cows and heifers.

 Gives you a lot of information about working with these cattle during the calving season.

 And we look forward to visiting with you again next week on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.

 (country music) 


Ag Apps

>>> Get your smartphones and tablets out.

 Extension nutrient management specialist, Brian Arnall, has discovered a couple of Ag apps that you may also find useful.

>>> The division of agriculture's very active in releasing apps for your mobile devices, both Android and iOS.

 And right now we've had several new ones come out, plus several apps we've released that work really well for this time of the year.

 One of 'em would be our ammonium loss calculator.

 This calculator was built to look at if you apply urea, giving certain soil conditions, temperature, soil pH and wind speed,

how much is the potential loss if it doesn't rain?

Couple easy inputs, you put your nitrogen rate, your average daily temperature, and then your soil pH.

 Put in your wind speed and it gets you a calculation.

 And often you put your information in here,

you'll probably be surprised about just how much urea, how much nitrogen you could lose if you use surface apply urea without incorporating it via tillage or rainfall or irrigation.

  So that's a nice app as we're planning our top dress applications to decide do you wanna use urea and surface broadcast

or consider using a liquid application, using UAN and streamer bars.

 One of the new apps we've released is Toxic Plants.

 This app is looking at if you've used a cover crop or certain crop species.

 Are there any plants that may or may not be toxic to the cattle or livestock you're grazing?

And so you can enter this into this application,

you can use, choose the livestock of interest,

 you have the cattle, lactating cows,  horses, lactating dairy cows or sheep.

 And then look at the plants that may negatively impact that livestock.

 You can also just look at by plant and say,

I have cowpeas out in my field that I wanna graze.

  Is there any impact on said species with this crop? 

And so it'll tell ya is there potential for bloat, is there potential for nitrate toxicity?

And this is one of our multiple apps that was released from the Grazing Cat project that many of us in Oklahoma State and Kansas State are involved in.

 For more information on any of the apps you just heard about,

 or more of the apps that we've released in the past, go to SUNUP.OKState. EDU.

 (country music) 


Market Monitor

>>> Kim Anderson, our crop marketing specialist is here now, and Kim prices have recovered from the past couple of weeks, what's going on?

>>> Well I think there's good news in the market, we did recover most of our losses that we saw about two or three weeks ago.

 I think the real good news is that our full contract basis for harvest-delivered wheat in '17 increased about nine cents this last week.

 The lower end of that bracket, you know, the basis range was from a minus a dollar seven to a minus 80 cents.

 That minus 80 helped pretty good, it now went to a minus 77,

but that upper level went down to one oh two and our average, our mid-point in that went down about nine cents

and so I think that's good news as we're looking at harvest,

that basis comin' down, you know I talked that, if we had test weight and protein,

that that might be down to around minus 70.

 Pick up another 20 cents on that.

>>> Let's talk about the latest supply and demand report and whether you've seen any surprises this time.

>>> Oh, it came out Thursday, I don't think there was any surprises, I think there was a bit of good news in there,

they lowered the U.S. Wheat Ending Stocks about 50 million bushels, but it's still at 1 billion, 139 million bushels, 

the world, they lowered it 116 million bushels, so any time it can go down, even if the world's still at 9.2 billion, still a record, less is still better.

 You look at corn, they lowered the Ending Stocks on corn a little bit, that was expected, and so I think, minor surprise, but not much.

>>> Before we talk about the '17/'18, supply and demand in the marketing here,

let's talk about what's going on in Oklahoma wherein First Hollow Stem time,

what's going on with producers and some of the decisions they're making these next few weeks?

>>> Well it's like we talked about over the last month or so,

I believe there's going to be a higher percentage of our planted wheat acres I'd say that are gonna be grazed out,

there's gonna be bail, there's gonna be turned under, and go to the summer crops.

 On the average, we harvest about 70% of planted acres,

 I'm talking to cattlemen, they're keeping those stockers out on the wheat right now,

and so I think that supports our idea that we won't harvest 70% of those planted acres.

  It'll be less than that.

>>> And then in terms of the '17/'18 marketing year, and supply and demand, what's all going on?

>>> Now USDA will come out with some numbers on February the 23rd,

that'll be the first real estimates,

I've looked at, and put a pencil to part of that,

you look at All Wheat Production, at about 27 billion bushels in '15, 27.2 in '16,  I've got it 26.7 billion bushels for the world right now.

  And our Ending Stocks on the world for '17/'18, I lowered consumption a little bit, I've got Ending Stocks staying about the same as they are this year, about 9 to 9.2.

Looking at the United States on that, I've got the production for this year, for '17,  at 1.8 billion bushels.

 Now you can compare that to 2.3 last year, 2.1 in '15/'16, 2 billion in '14/'15.

 You look at Ending Stocks,

I see them coming in at about 900 million this next year, down slightly, and I think that's good news.

 Even to lower World Ending Stocks, lower U.S. Ending Stocks, 900 million versus 1 billion, 139 million you got a significant,

we're getting below that billion bushel level,  and I see prices, I've got right now, at $4.75 for our average U.S. price,

the Oklahoma price has been right at about 50 cents less than that.

 But I think if these numbers come to fruition, I believe we could see five-dollar wheat next year on the U.S. average price, Oklahoma slightly less than that.

>>> Okay, Ken, thanks for running all those numbers.

 We'll see you soon.

 (light music) 


Shop Stop

>>> Hi.

 Welcome to Shop Stop.

 Today we wanna talk about the flywheels, the small engines, lawn mowers, and timing issues.

>>> So, it's that time of year where we start mowing again,

and you're gonna go out there with your lawn mower and mow over mama's lawn ornament,

and suddenly the engine dies, and you can't get it started.

>>> One of the things that'll happen is it's got a key on the flywheel that actually keeps the timing on the engine correct,

and I guess it's a good thing that you shear that pan because it keeps you from doing damage to the engine.

 But now you've gotta be able to pull the flywheel and put a new shear key in there.

>>> Right.

 And number one on the shear key is make sure you get the same one that the manufacturer recommends.

 Don't make a steel shear key for these engines because it does save the crankshaft.

>>> The hard part is actually getting the engine and holding it steady while you're trying to get, or keeping it from rotating, while you're trying to get the flywheel off.

>>> So that sets in behind this flywheel like this, and it's held on with a nut.

  So sometimes these nuts are on there fairly tight, and it's difficult to get them off.

>>> If you've got an impact wrench, it's pretty easy to use that.

 Or if you've got an older mower that the actual veins on the flywheel are cast,

then there's a tool for grabbing those or you can actually wedge a pry bar or something in there to hold that flywheel,

keep the engine from rotating, while you loosen the nut.

>>> But the new flywheels, as you can see, typically have plastic veins on it for the engine cooling and so it's harder to grab onto.

 We're gonna show you a little trick on how to remove that nut without a tool.

>>> What you wanna start with is if you remove the spark plug from the engine

and get the piston somewhere a little lower, 

away from top dead center,

you can just take some twine or some string or something similar to that,

and just run it into that spark plug hole, until you've got enough in there, and then as you start to rotate the engine, that will keep the piston from reaching top dead center,

will essentially lock the engine up for you so you can remove the flywheel.

 Now when I pull on the cord, I've already hit that string,

and now my engine is locked up and I'll have a chance to remove that nut off of the drive shaft.

>>> So you remove the nut,

remove the flywheel, 

and then once you remove that flywheel you can access that key

and replace it and reinstall it.

 And then rotate your engine back the other direction from wherever you tightened the nut,

and then you can remove the twine.

>>> There's a tip for locking your engine up intentionally so you can remove the flywheel.

 We'll see you next week on Shop Stop.

 (light music) 


>>> Thanks so much for joining us for SUNUP this week.

 Remember you can find us anytime online at SUNUP.OKSTATE.EDU, 

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

 I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone, and remember Oklahoma agriculture starts at SUNUP.

  (light music) 

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