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Transcript for August 1, 2020

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Important Information on Unsolicited Seed Packages
  • Storing Hay Correctly
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Maintaining Body Condition in First Calf Heifers
  • Market Monitor
  • Potassium Deficiency in Cotton & Soybeans
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Planting Alfalfa

 

 

(upbeat music)

 

Important Information on Unsolicited Seed Packages

>>> Hello everyone, and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Alarming news in the world of agriculture this week.

Seeds from invasive species arriving in the mail

to unsuspecting people in the United States,

including here in Oklahoma.

OSU's Plant and Soil Sciences Department Head,

Dr. Jeff Edwards, gets us up to speed.

>>> So we've been getting calls,

and there have been reports in the news about seeds

showing up in the mail.

We don't know for sure where these seeds are coming from,

and we don't even know what plants the seeds are for.

But what we do know is that you should not plant them

under any circumstances.

And here's why.

You could introduce an invasive species, a new weed

to our environment.

So we don't want that.

You shouldn't even open the packaging.

If they're sealed in plastic packaging,

you should not open that because there's potential

that there could be insects in there.

You could introduce a new insect,

or you could introduce a new disease

that could affect one of our agricultural

or horticultural crops in the state.

So if you receive seeds in the mail that are unsolicited,

USDA has asked for the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture,

Food and Forestry to be a collection point for our state.

So you can get in touch with ODAFF,

or you can bring those by your local Cooperative

Extension Office, and they can serve as a collection point

and then get those seeds to ODAFF.

They are asking that you keep the original packaging,

because they're going to try and figure out

where the seeds are coming from.

Don't throw them in the trash

because they could wind up in a landfill.

You know, if it is a weed seed,

weeds are very good at being able to germinate anywhere.

So that could introduce it to the environment.

If you have questions,

contact your local County Extension Office.

(upbeat music)

 

Storing Hay Correctly

>>> Maybe you've seen it online,

there's a really cool Lunchtime Series

that you guys are doing that involves Oklahoma ranchers.

>>> We call it the Rancher's Thursday Lunchtime Series,

and it's a 30 minute to an hour webinar

every Thursday at 12:30.

Then we can link it to the SUNUP website,

and they can see what's coming up.

And the really neat thing is that we're able to record

each one of those videos.

And then in many cases, we also have the slide presentation

available there on the website as well.

So they can go look or watch those, learn from them

at any time.

Dr. Kevin Shinners, University of Wisconsin-Madison,

talked about just management tips to minimize deterioration

of round bales stored outside,

and it was just a phenomenal presentation.

>>> There were a number of factors in there

that Oklahoma producers may do that maybe they should

maybe rethink and get a little more life out

of the round bales.

>>> Yeah, so a lot of those practical tips.

And maybe I could boil them down into, you know,

he emphasized that you should start off

with a good quality dense bale with square shoulders,

use net wrap, create that thatch on the outside.

Then the next thing he emphasized, which is obvious

I think to everyone, is store the bales

in a very well drained area.

And then secondly, or thirdly,

he suggested that you maintain sunlight to the bales,

so that once they do get wet, they dry out rapidly.

And the last thing he emphasized was air flow,

which is something we probably don't think about a lot,

but, you know, don't stack them next to a building,

or next to a bunch of trees or brush,

and control the vegetation.

>>> When it comes to the last one that you said,

controlling vegetation, it does take

a little bit of distance between the bales to do that.

What is a good distance between the bales

to promote that airflow, but then also vegetation?

>>> So he suggested that a minimum of three feet

between bales, so three, four, five feet,

but really at the end of the day,

you probably wanna, if you have the space to store them

wide enough to get whether you're going to use

the zero-turn mower to go down through them,

but control the vegetation, right?

So if they need to be wide enough

to get the bush hog down through, then stack them that way.

But stack them wide enough to get equipment through there,

whether it's a sprayer or a mower,

so that you can control the vegetation.

He suggested stacking the bales north to south,

not east to west, and butt them up against each other,

like most people do.

But by doing that in that three to four feet

minimum space, the sun rises in the east,

it sets in the west.

All afternoon it has, especially in the afternoon,

a good opportunity to dry those bales out

if they're stacked north to south,

but not as much if they're stacked east to west.

>>> Are there advantages or none at all

to doubling up, you know, double stacking the hay bales?

>>> He strongly recommended do not.

The point was that that's a collector of moisture,

the bottom bales are going to collect moisture.

So stacking works very well,

if you're gonna use a tarp

or if they're gonna be stacked inside.

If they're gonna be stacked outside in the open,

do not stack bales, do not stack them,

Butt them up tightly North to South,

Southern facing slope,

and leave three to four feet in between.

>>> Excellent, thank you very much Dr. Dave Lawman,

and we'll have a link to those websites,

including the presentation that he was talking about

on our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> As we go into those dog days of summer here in August,

it's usually a pretty hot, dry time of the year,

and we know that forage quality is beginning to decline,

especially in our summer pastures natives

and the bermuda grass pastures.

That becomes an issue,

if we're growing some fall-born replacement heifers,

where we're trying to get to enough gain on them,

to have them big enough to breed in the breeding season

in November early December,

or even with a yearling stocker cattle,

that we're running out here on summer pasture.

We know from research done

at Oklahoma State University a number of years ago,

that a small amount of a protein supplement,

they used the term, the Oklahoma gold program,

that small amount,

meaning about only one pound per head per day,

of a high protein supplement,

38% to 40% crude protein,

really provided a rather substantial increase

in average daily gain,

within the tune of three to four tenths

of pound average daily gain increase,

compared to cattle that did not receive

any kind of supplement at all.

Well, there's a reason why that works,

and we call it a positive associative effect.

And what we're talking about here,

is what that little bit of protein,

does for especially the microbes in the rumen,

of these cattle.

It has an effect on their ability to digest forage,

and to do it more quickly.

If you look at this particular table,

you'll see some of the research that was done years ago.

Where they gave some heifers,

a really, really pretty low quality forage,

it was less than 5% crude protein,

and without any kind of supplementation at all,

those cattle could only consume about 1.7%,

of their body weight,

but if they got one and three quarters pounds

of a high protein supplement,

they could consume 2.15% of their body weight,

and that represented about a 27% increase

in just a voluntary intake of that low quality forage

just by the presence of that high protein supplement.

The reason that that happened,

is if you look at the graph again,

you'll see that there's a tremendous difference

in how long it took those cattle to digest that forage.

Without the supplement, about 75 hours for that roughage

to be completely digested, turned over in rumen.

If they got the protein, and those bugs got the protein,

then the turnover time or the retention time of

that low-quality forage was cut down by 32%

or only about 56 hours.

Therefore, what's going on is,

these cattle get hungry again more quickly,

and they consume more of the forage on a voluntary basis.

Keep this concept in mind,

and I think it'll really help you.

If you'd like to learn more

about late summer supplementation,

on these warm season grasses with a high protein supplement,

I urge you to go to the sunup website,

we'll put a link there,

that'll help you get a better understanding

of what's going on in this late summer period,

with that high protein supplementation.

And we look forward to visiting with you again next week

on sunup's cow-calf corner.

 

Maintaining Body Condition in First Calf Heifers

>>> We're joined now by Dr. Rosslyn Biggs,

our extension beef cattle specialist,

to talk about body condition.

And Rosslyn, let's start off

by talking about our spring calvers,

and some of the considerations to keep in mind.

>>> Right, well you know, our spring calvers obviously

have calves inside, hopefully this time of year

and as we're looking at those pasture conditions,

they traditionally, as we get into late June,

July will decrease in quality.

So we need to really be evaluating those females,

to make sure that they're maintaining their condition,

and perhaps supplement as needed,

and also take a look at those calves at side,

and evaluate them, with their mothers to make sure

that those females are maintaining that condition.

We may in some cases, either wanna supplement,

or we may want to look at early weaning depending

upon our pasture conditions

and our other resources for supplementation

to make sure that we're choosing economically,

and keeping those females in good condition,

so they can come right back around next spring

and be productive for us.

>>> How do I make that call?

How do I know what the condition is and,

what the criteria is for supplements

or additional measures?

>>> Absolutely.

I think that the initial thing is to take a hard look

at those females and evaluate their body condition scores.

As we talk about at calving,

it's the same for spring calvers and fall calvers.

We're looking for those first calf heifers to calve

in a body condition score of six.

And we want those mature cows,

at least in a body condition, five to six,

so that they can have good calvings,

have good colostrum and get those calves on the ground

and in good shape.

But in this last run, that last trimester of pregnancy

are the biggest demands for fetal growth

and we want to make sure that we're maintaining those cows,

especially as we mentioned, that pasture conditions

may be declining in certain areas.

And so we want to evaluate our supplementation

of those females to keep them again, in that body condition,

that's gonna be appropriate.

We don't want them thin, we certainly don't want them too

heavy either, and again, putting those mature cows,

right at that five to six,

and those first calf heifers,

right at that body condition score of six.

>>> You and the team have a lot of resources available

for those who want to learn more.

>>> Absolutely.

Our website, beef.okstate.edu has a wealth of resources

from nutrition to health,

really everything that the producer might

want to take a look at and encourage folks

to take a look at that.

>>> Okay, thanks a lot, Dr. Biggs.

>>> Thank you.

>>> And for a link to that website,

just go to sunup.okstate.edu.

(light upbeat music)

 

Marke Monitor

>>> Well China always seems to be in the news lately.

So Kim, what's going on?

>>> Well, if you look at China,

you got to look at their 1.4 plus billion people,

and 1.4 times any number's a big number.

So China's big.

If you look at, when it comes to crops on wheat,

China produces 17.7% of the world's wheat crop

and they use 17.4.

So they're pretty much self sufficient in wheat production.

In corn, they produce 22% of the world's corn crop

and they use 24% of it.

So they're gonna have to import corn.

Soybeans, China produces 5% of the world's soybean crop.

61% of the imports are by China.

You look at cotton, China produces 23% of the cotton

and uses 32%.

So China is a big user, a big importer

of most agriculture commodities.

>>> Sticking with corn in there.

China's been selling corn out of the government reserves,

so what impact is that going to have here in the US?

>>> Well, that's gonna have some impact on the US.

You go back a few weeks, China bought US corn for imports.

We had about a 25 cent increase in prices from that.

We've lost 25 cents over the last week or so,

but also over that same period,

around the United States and around the world,

we got rain on the corn crops.

They've increased the corn estimate for production.

And I think we've had that 25 cent decline is mostly

because of weather and increase production expectations.

So I think a little bit of impact on prices, but not much.

>>> So with the economy the way that it is right now,

the US dollar has been declining a little bit,

but is there going to be a positive impact

when it comes to our US crops?

>>> I think for agriculture, it's a positive aspect

because, you go back to March, the dollar index

was about 104.

It's down to around 93, a little above that right now,

that's about a 10% decline in that index.

That means that corn, wheat, soybeans, are 10% cheaper

out on the world market.

It makes us more competitive.

So from an agriculture standpoint, I think it's positive.

>>> It's August 1st.

So we're heading toward the end of the summer.

What advice do you have for farmers?

>>> I think farmers have got to realize

that farmers around the world

are gonna get more competitive.

You've got Russia, lower wheat prices

because they increase their wheat production estimate.

You look at Brazil, they're bringing in more acres

for soybeans, and you look at Ukraine, Argentina, Brazil.

They're already exporting about 58%

of the world's soybean exports.

So you've got that more competition from around the world.

Our producers should expect more competition.

We've got to keep our costs low and our quality high.

>>> Alrighty, Kim.

Kim Anderson, grain marketing specialist here

at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Potassium Deficiency in Cotton & Soybeans

 

>>> There's been a lot of interest as far as potassium

goes from producers across the Southern Great Plains.

And Brian, you got into a conversation on Twitter

with some producers.

Tell me about what their concerns were about potassium.

>>> So it actually started off with the University of Arkansas

soil fertility specialist, Dr. Trent Roberts posting

a picture of some soybean that he'd seen

in Northwest Arkansas with potassium deficiencies,

asking, had you seen this? Do you know what this is,

kind of a question.

And the conversation started rolling,

showing our producers in Northeast Oklahoma,

seeing deficiencies.

I've personally seen a significant amount

of deficiencies across North Central Oklahoma.

And it all comes down to, we have a yellowing

of the lower to mid canopy on our soybean crop

and the cotton crop as we go through.

Now with potassium, the reason for that has been

what we expect to be two fold this year.

One is just the low soil test potassium.

You would expect to see potassium deficiencies,

where you have low soil test K, and you haven't fertilized.

But also, a lot of these symptoms are coming

with the double crop,

maybe a little bit later planted soybeans,

some of the cotton, or we have root restrictions.

So here's a good example.

We have this big cotton plant right here.

We're looking at a very tall cotton plant and you saw,

I yanked it out of the ground with very little effort.

It is wet.

We have good soil moisture,

but because of the ground we're in right now,

we have very limited rooting structure.

And so because of that,

you're starting to see deficiencies of potassium.

So you get leaves like this,

where you have chlorosis and yellowing.

We have interveinal chlorosis it's turning yellow on this.

And you'll also see this on the soybeans and slower leaves.

It's attributed, in this case,

we have plenty of potassium in our soil,

but the roots are small.

And the only way these plants, cotton and soybean,

or some plants can take up potassium is

hitting it with their roots.

They've got to come in contact with it.

And both cotton and soybean are very heavy K users.

It takes a lot of potassium to fill the bowls

and fill the pods.

>>> Say a producer is out scouting their crop

and they're not seeing the threshold that maybe they,

feel comfortable making an application.

What's the potential yield loss

if they don't make it that up eventually?

>>> The potential yield loss is

a little bit of environmental dependent,

is harder to say if we have a soil test value

and a good root,

we can tell you exactly how much it's going to be lost.

Cause we have a sufficiency level for that.

>>> Right.

>>> When it comes to limited rooting being the problem

that the plant can't access the potassium.

>>> Right.

>>> Now it's harder to estimate because you don't know

the extent that root can reach out and get to new potassium.

In some cases, I've seen some soybean fields,

in the last couple of years, that we easily lose

40% to 50% of the yield potential.

>>> Right.

>>> But in others where it's just a slight yellowing,

slight deficiency, the crop can grow out.

The roots start exploring better

or so much of this rain that we just had,

will help the roots explore

and gets a little bit more of that potassium.

So if you just have slightly yellowing,

maybe not worry about it,

but if you have extreme deficiencies

or deep yellowing and necrosis or dying of tissue,

maybe thinking about what are your options

and do you think you can get on some potassium before rain.

>>> Thank you very much Dr. Brian Cornell,

and for more information and help with this,

visit your local County extension office

or visit our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

Mesonet Weather

Welcome to the weekly Mesonet Weather Report.

I'm Wes Lee.

Rains continued for many areas of the state this week.

In a few locations, such as Oklahoma City and Yukon,

intensity was so great that localized flooding occurred.

As of Wednesday afternoon,

the rainfall had improved soil moisture

over a large part of Oklahoma.

This map of the four inch fractional water index,

shows that there are now more green wet areas in the state,

as compared to the dry brown areas.

Additional rainfall could improve this situation

even more by the end of the week.

Along with the rains this week,

came some great relief from high temperatures.

This chart is a statewide high temperatures for the month,

through the middle of the week.

The blue fill area, is the long term average

and the dark line is the July average high temperatures.

You can see that the temperatures were much below normal

towards the end of the month.

By the way, the statewide average hottest day of the year,

usually occurs on August 5th, at 95.4 degrees.

Cool weather is likely to continue,

into the start of August, as seen by this forecast map

for very comfortable highs on Saturday.

For the upcoming week, the National Weather Service

is predicting a cooler than normal temperature outlook

as indicated by all of the blue on this map over Oklahoma.

Gary is up next with some great rainfall totals

for the month.

>>> Thanks Wes and good morning everyone.

While we continue with our amazing comeback

in July rainfall.

It was certainly looking a little bit scary there

as we got through June, and we had drought increasing

across much of the western half of the state,

even up in northeastern Oklahoma.

Well, the good July rains have stopped that drought,

and it looks like we're on the mend a little bit.

So a much nicer picture than what we've seen

over the last couple of months.

We do still have moderate to extreme drought

across parts of West Central Oklahoma,

up in the North, Northwest Oklahoma.

And then also out in the far Western Panhandle

and a little bit of moderate drought over in North Central

in the Northeast Oklahoma, but for the most part,

we're just dealing with no drought at all.

Maybe some abnormally dry conditions over much of the state.

And that north central down through central parts

of the state picture looks much better

than what it was earlier.

And this July rain fall, as we see from Mesonet,

is absolutely wonderful.

And some cases it did cause flooding, in Oklahoma,

we have to deal with the good and that comes with the bad.

But we do see across North Central,

down in central Oklahoma, a large area of eight to nine,

even more than 10 inches, about 11 inches

of rainfall even across that area.

So that's a drought killer there.

So that's wonderful.

The departure from normal for July thus far, well,

more than six to eight inches of rainfall,

above normal up in North Central Oklahoma, large area,

three to five inches above normal, up to six inches.

And also the same thing out in the Central Panhandle,

a one to four and a half inches above normal.

And then we see other areas across the state,

Northeast Oklahoma, three to five inches above normal.

We still see those areas of deficits however,

across parts of South Central

in the Southeast Oklahoma, and now in

far Southwestern Oklahoma.

That's it for this time, we'll see you next time

on the Mesonet weather report.

(lively music)

 

Planting Alfalfa

>>> We're about a month away before producers

are going to start seeding alfalfa.

So Alex, what do producers need to think about

before they start doing that?

>>> I would say that if they didn't do yet to go ahead and

select an appropriate field, to seed their alfalfa.

Alfalfa seed is very expensive.

There are lots of money involved, on herbicide,

on prepping the soil, on fertilization so I believe

that's for invest all those resources and

energy, better that you select the right field.

So you can be successful.

>>> You know when it comes to the right field,

do producers need to think about the amount of rain that

it's going to get, like you have some alfalfa

planted out here and we just got a lot of rain

and you see a lot of standing water.

Does that play a role?

>>> Yes.

In alfalfa that really plays a big role.

That's why, for alfalfa it starts over there

because we don't have any water-logging,

ponding over there as we have here,

that is the worst situation for an alfalfa field.

First thing that I need to think on an alfalfa field is a

deep soil, well drained that is leveled.

And do we have slopes, ideally talking less than 2%

because those water pondings that you are see here,

the alfalfa roots stay in that condition,

they will really die asphyxiated.

Also can have alfalfa scalding and diseases such as root rot

that's a very concern here in Oklahoma

when we talk about alfalfa.

If you had the alfalfa in a field or you have alfalfa in a

field right now, and you extending this thing

and you are planning on terminate that alfalfa field

and right after seed the new alfalfa, I would say

that might be a no go.

The old alfalfa stand produce some substances

that is toxic to the new alfalfa seedlings.

That's why you call auto-toxicity.

So when you talk about you are selecting a field

and pay attention and go back in time and think

in a year and a half back in time,

I had the alfalfa any time in that field?

If their answer is yes, I highly recommend

that they go and read the fact sheet, alfalfa auto-toxicity.

In that fact sheet, there is a nice table

that can help the producer really figure out

how long he needs to wait exactly

to put a new alfalfa stand there.

>>> All right, thanks Alex.

Dr. Alex Rocatelli, forage systems specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

And if you would like a link to that lunch time series,

go to our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

 (uplifting music)

 

>>> That'll do it for us this week.

Remember you can find us anytime

at sunup.okstate.edu, and also follow us

on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone.

And remember Oklahoma Agriculture starts at SUNUP

(inspirational music)

 

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