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Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

Phone: (405) 744-4065
FAX: (405) 744-5738
E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for July 4, 2020

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Wheat Update
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Cattle & Mineral Supplements
  • Livestock & Horn Flies
  • Market Monitor
  • Naturally Speaking

  

(bright upbeat music)

>>> Hello everyone and welcome to SUNUP,

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Oklahoma's wheat harvest is winding down,

for an update on how everything went,

we're joined today by Dr. Amanda Silva,

our OSU Extension Small Grain Specialist.

 

Wheat Update

>>> Well, overall, harvest once we got it started,

it went really well.

So, we started around Memorial Day in the southwest region,

and from there they combined never stopped.

We are about overall complete, around the state,

we have still some combines rolling in the Panhandle,

for irrigated fields, but yeah,

the dryness of this weather was great, it helped a lot.

>>> So, they were able to get through harvest,

it was pretty uneventful.

Then now the big question is,

how did the wheat turnout overall?

>>> So, in the southwest region, we...

South Central we had that freeze damage in April.

So, we saw some yield reduction because of that.

We also saw some producers

that had to cut their wheat for hay,

early in the season.

So, results that we harvested,

we are in about 40 bushels an acre, in our trials,

in our Altus and Walters,

but we lost one of our biggest trials,

which is Chickasha, because of the freeze damage.

We also lost other trial in Apache,

because of freeze damage.

The wheat was just looking beautiful

before that freeze, but, the issue with this freeze,

is that it came right when wheat was at flowering,

and it killed the flower parts,

and the wheat was not able to form the grain.

I would say that late varieties were less vulnerable,

because they were not at flowering when the freeze came,

so that's what we are seeing.

But, this does not indicate that producer

should plant a late variety all the time.

Because, we never know when that freeze can happen.

So, what I would say, just plant varieties

with different maturity ranges,

to spread out the risk of the freeze event.

Another thing that we saw was drought,

throughout the state.

So, you're seeing in one of our locations,

the very low yields because of drought.

And also in the Panhandle,

we had a lot of drought for a long period of time.

So that's also some...

We're seeing that reflecting in our results this year.

Over all, that freeze did not affect the wheat

right at flowering,

the yields were good, fairly good.

But, in some locations, we just lost some production.

But other parts of the state,

We are seeing very good yields.

North Central, doing really well,

we have one of the locations that we're averaging about,

I think was 107 bushels.

And,

yeah so, we are seeing all kinds of values

in yield data right now.

>>> 107 bushels an acre sounds, phenomenal.

>>> Yes, it's phenomenal.

We were very excited about that.

Yeah, that was...

In that location, we are also seeing some

good protein results.

So, some varieties that yielded well,

and also had a fairly good protein,

while keeping a good protein in the grain.

>>> Speaking of yields, what role did fungicide play

in your trials?

>>> So, we saw an overall increase in yields,

with using fungicide.

I believe we had a seven bushel, yield gain,

overall, with fungicide.

But we did saw that some variaties responded

really, really well to the fungicide.

So, that's something that we have to keep in mind,

it's the differences in the varieties characteristics,

and, how that will affect their responses

to fungicide application.

>>> You're working on crunching the numbers now so to speak,

and putting together the annual report,

that everybody looks forward to.

This year, there's a new aspect

in terms of reporting protein numbers, right?

>>> Yeah, so this year we are adding protein results

together in the report so producers can see

the yield values, the test weight and protein.

So, we believe that is very important.

And, although we are seeing,

is still that negative relationship

in between yields and protein,

we are also seeing that, there is a potential,

for some varieties to achieve good yields

and while keeping good protein results.

>>> I know a lot of producers

look forward to reading the results,

every year, as they start making

their Fall planting decisions.

So, you'll be working on that in the next month or so,

and we'll see it soon?

>>> Yes, we'll see it very soon.

So, preliminary results,

so, for each locations are posted on our website,

but the complete report,

including heading date, plant high,

and even freeze damage records that we took notes,

will be on the full variety book soon.

>>> Okay, great.

Well, we will look forward to that.

Thank you very much, Dr. Silva.

And for a look at those preliminary results,

We have a link for you at sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Hi, Wesley here with your weekly Mesonet weather report.

Oklahoma experienced another week of August top weather

in late June,

little moisture and intense heat.

The seven-day rainfall map from July 1

shows that most Mesonet sites were dry,

and those that did receive rain the amounts were scarce.

McCurtain County had the best rains of the week,

but even there are gauges collected less

than an inch of rain.

That continued the mostly dry trend for the month of June.

This map shows you the departure

of average rainfall for the month.

Only seven of the 120 sites had more rainfall for the month

than the on term average.

Most sites received two to four inches less

than what would be normal for June.

As expected, this led to a drying of Oklahoma soils.

The brown shown in this map of the seven-day change

in the 10-inch fractional water index,

indicate drying conditions over the past week.

I know I've said this several times recently,

but a lot of the sites in the Far West and Panhandle

have no moisture left at 10-inches to lose,

hence the 0.0 numbers.

One thing that we did have plenty of in June

was high temperatures.

This map shows the departure of average

for maximum air temperatures.

Most of the state average one to three degrees Fahrenheit

above normal for the month.

In the drought stricken Panhandle,

the heat was more intense averaging

four to five degrees above normal.

The heat continued through the week

with some record breaking numbers.

On Tuesday, new high record temperatures

were reached in Beckham and Harmon counties.

On Wednesday, the National Weather Service

issued a heat advisory

for the eastern two-thirds of the State,

and then an excessive heat warning,

their highest level for several north central counties.

At least two other weather variables contributed

to the dry soil conditions for the state in June,

low relative humidity and high winds.

This map of departure from normal

for average relative humidity

shows that in all the drought areas of the state,

humidity was lower than normal.

Part of this is like the chicken or egg argument

as dry soils can contribute to lower relative humidity.

But in areas like the Panhandle and Northwest,

the lower relative humidity, same for June,

caused higher evaporation rates

where soil moisture was available.

High winds for the month

tended to be located again over the same dry soil areas,

where wind were higher than normal as seen on this map,

definitely contributed

to high soil moisture evaporation rates.

Unfortunately, this August top weather

appears to be locked in for a while.

After a week cool front

is expected to drop temperatures closer to normal

and bring some small rain chances for this weekend.

Things heat right back up next week.

The National Weather Service forecast for the upcoming week

shows a probability of higher than normal heat

to continue for most of the state.

The rain forecast is not much better.

They are showing a probability of below normal precipitation

for the state as well shown by the tan colors.

Gary is not available this week,

so we will see you next week on the Mesonet weather report.

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Any farmer or rancher in Oklahoma,

that through the years

has grown some of the forage sorghums for hay crops,

knows that when we get into these hot summer months,

that there's a pretty good chance that the heat

and the drought stress on these plants

will cause an increase in nitrate uptake,

and therefore the possibility of putting up some hay

that got high levels of nitrate

and could cause some nitrate toxicity.

Well, there's a couple of things about this

that I wanna remind the producers

concerning nitrate toxicity.

Number one is that

when we have that period of time

where the plants have been stressed for several days,

maybe a week or so,

due to one of these high pressure domes,

and then we get a drought easing rain,

we finally get that good thunderstorm

and a good rain,

there's often a situation where the rancher

wants to go right out within a couple of days

after that rain has occurred

and cut that hay crop.

I say wait,

because we know that that drought easing rain

will let that plant continue to take up nitrates

for several days before its normal plant metabolism

takes over and changes that nitrate into plant proteins.

We need to wait about a week

after that good drought-easing rain,

and let that plant get back to normal metabolism.

That will help to ease the nitrates

that have accumulated in those plants.

The other myth that I think we wanna discuss

is about the time of day that we cut these hay crops.

For years, producers thought that if they waited

until later in the day

to cut one of these forage sorghum-type fields,

that that would mean that the nitrate concentration

would be lower, thinking that the metabolism

of the plant during the day would use up the nitrate.

We've conducted studies here at Oklahoma State University

across the State, especially the Western part of the state

of Oklahoma five different fields,

where we looked at the nitrate concentration

in those fields,

every two hours from 8:00 a.m clear up to 6:00 p.m.

We found no significant difference

in the nitrate concentration,

depending upon the time of day.

So I don't want ranchers or farmers to get misled

by the thought that if they cut later in the day,

that that hay is essentially safe

from nitrate toxicity,

that's just not the case.

I think there's a lot more about nitrates

that you probably ought to know

if you haven't got some experience with growing

these forage sorghum-type plants.

So I encourage you to go to the SUNUP website.

That's sunup.okstate.edu.

There, we've got a link to a fact sheet.

It's PSS-2903.

It's called nitrate toxicity

in livestock has a lot of information.

That's really useful for Oklahoma producers

that are going to grow some

of these forage sorghum-type plants this Summer.

Hey, we'll look forward to visiting with you again

next week on SUNUPS Cow Calf Corner.

 

Cattle & Mineral Supplements

>>> Pastures are green across most of Oklahoma and Dave,

you would think with green pastures,

you probably don't need the mineral supplements,

but producers do need to put out supplement?

>>> It's that time of year to be thinking about that.

That, yeah, the pasture is green,

but lot of the data that's been collected over the year

on Oklahoma years, in Oklahoma forges shows

that without it out Sodium is almost

always low in grass species, no matter the species.

(cows mooing)

And so cattle are always gonna have a fundamental need

to consume salt, to meet that sodium requirement.

And then we're out here in a native range pasture

and most of these native species.

So in Oklahoma, as the season progresses

get lower and lower in Phosphorus.

And cattle have a basic requirement for Phosphorus.

And so most of the native range,

supplements that are designed to meet requirements

for categorizing native range

are gonna have increased fosters.

>>> What kind of trends do we see throughout the Summer,

whenever it does come to the needs for cattle?

>>> Okay, so, you know, we've collected mineral intake data

over the years at the Range Cow Research Center.

And I think most producers would tell you

they observed the same thing.

And that is that during the Winter time.

On average, mineral consumption is pretty good,

but as the season progresses and it greens up in the spring,

their mineral consumption declines a little bit

as the season progresses through the summer and late summer,

it declines lower here at the North range unit.

The mineral consumption on this herd of cattle in April

was about four and a half ounces per day, per cow calf pair.

We're targeting about two to two and a half.

So they're consuming a little more than they need,

not too bad.

In, May, it was three, here the month of June,

their mineral intake has been right

around two per cow calf pair.

So it's dropping like we normally see how.

>>> How does the average Oklahoma cattle producer

know that they are getting 2%,

they're getting 4% of them?

>>> Sure, they, so I'll tell you what,

there's a nice little app available.

If you just go to sunup.okstate.edu,

we can link you to that app

and you can download it on your phone,

or you can just print off real simple record sheets

that we have available also,

or anybody can track it with the big chief tablet

and a pencil.

But if you just write down the date,

the number of cattle in the pasture,

the amount you put out,

and then every time you put mineral out,

you might estimate how much is left in there from last time.

But then also jot down the new freshmen

or you put in just within a matter of two weeks,

you can start to calculate

the average daily consumption per head.

There are a lot of ways to modify a mineral consumption

in a cow herd right now we're about at our target level.

So, but from here on,

we're probably needed to be encouraging supplement intake.

And one way to do that is just to move the mineral closer

to loafing areas or watering areas

so that they spend more time around the mineral feeder.

They're gonna spend more time consuming it.

We just don't recommend putting out white salt beside

the free choice mineral product.

>>> Well, thank you very much, Dr. Dave lawman,

Extension Beef Cattle Specialist,

here at Oklahoma state university.

And for more information on what we talked about today,

visit our website sunup.okstate.edu.

 

>>> As Oklahoma summer temperatures increase.

We are also seeing more horn flies

and horseflies on livestock.

Today, Dr. Justin Talley has some treatment options.

 

Livestock & Horn Flies

>>> You all know when Oklahoma gets starts to warm up.

We start seeing increased fly populations.

Two main flies that we're concerned about this time of year

are horse flies and horn flies.

Yeah. In general, we think about environment conditions.

When have certain things like increased humidity,

increased precipitation.

That can increase our fly populations.

But in general, when we have increased temperatures,

that's always going to increase our fly populations.

Yeah, so horn flies are a blood feeding fly.

So every time we see an increase

of a certain number of those flies,

we'll see an impact to those animals

because it's a stress and what we usually see in cattle

is anywhere from one and a half

to 0.5 pounds per week in loss

and when our flies population is not controlled.

And then once you have the increased temperatures,

you're not only having that stress from the flies,

but you're having kind of a two fold effect

with heat stress combined with the fly stress.

So horse flies are very unique because only the females

feed on the animals and their larval habitat

or what we call semi-aquatic

and any kind of wet leaf litter.

So they're really hard to control,

but they're really vicious biters

and they can cause a lot of stress to cattle.

And they're also involved in being

a mechanical vector of anaplasmosis.

So in horses, we're not concerned with anaplasmosis,

but what we're concerned with is just overall stress.

So July is a critical month.

If you haven't done any kind of horn fly control,

you need to get out there and just look at your animals

and if they have a few flies on them now,

and our temperatures increase like they say

they're gonna increase,

then you're gonna get a almost a tenfold increase

in the population

because they'll become really reproductive.

All kinds of control options.

Now certain control options

are going to give you more control

for a longer period of time such as ear tags,

but then when you consider the late season control options,

what you want to consider is reintegrating

maybe some pour-on that you did initially in the spring,

and you may have to go back in there

and an additional pour-on application.

Yeah, actually studies that we did

here in Oklahoma State is that with burning,

we've reduced both horn flies and tick populations.

We saw a two fold decrease in horn fly populations

just by burning the pasture.

And what that does is that particular system

is that we did a patch burn system.

So you're only burning portions of that pasture.

So it's similar to rotational grazing

in that you have a different manure distribution pattern

and then it alters the grazing habitats of those animals.

So that interaction plus the decrease

in the flies developing in the manure pads

lead to decreased horn fly population.

(upbeat music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> Time now to get up to speed on the markets

with Dr. Kim Anderson.

Kim, why we're calling cotton and soybean prices

higher this week?

>>> Well, you know of the major commodities three out of four,

it's not too bad with higher corn prices.

It's the USDA is planting intentions report.

You look at corn on the Chicago Board of Trade,

that December contract was at $3.34 cents.

It increased 25% or seven and a half percent.

The expectations for those planted acres

was a 95.2 million acres.

It came in at 92 million.

so three point million acres less than expected

by almost 5 million acres less than last month.

So you got that nice increase in corn prices.

Soy beans, you got a 34% increase in price.

Now it sounds better than corn,

but there's really only 4% increase.

The expectations for soybean planted acres was 84.7.

USDA came in at 84.8.

So essentially right there at it.

But in March, it was at 83.5 million acres.

So you had higher soybean acres

was still a little increase in price.

I think that's good.

Cotton, we got a three cent increase.

That's about a 5% increase.

I don't have the expectations,

but last year we planted 13.7 million acres

in the US.

This year, it's 12.2.

So lower planted acres.

Wait, prices just walling around.

We got a little increase a couple days,

but it just moved around the wheat acres,

as you'd expect coming close to expectations.

44.7 expected, 44.3 is what the estimate was.

This is 2% less than last year.

Hard red winter wheat,

Oklahoma 44.3 million acres that set expectations.

You look at hard red spring

and given the protein problem with our hard red,

we need that protein in spring.

It came in at 11.5 million acres,

11.9 million acres in March.

So lower than that and 12.4 last year.

>>> What's the latest for harvest of hard red winter wheat?

>>> Well, it's moving on up to Northern Kansas right now.

What I've heard about it is it's kind of Jekyll

and Hyde on this harvest.

You got some spots, it's got some relatively

good milling quality wheat, I think the millers,

you're going to see a good strong basis in those areas.

And then you've got other areas

that you probably got a 50-50 chance

of getting milling quality wheat out of the deal.

So in our protein this year,

we had averaged 11.4 last year

for the entire harvest for hard red winter wheat,

it's probably, it's coming around 11.2 I think.

Their firm mills are really looking for 12.4.

But our test weights were really good in some areas.

I think those areas that's got that test weights,

that's got that yield, what we'll see our millers do is,

bring in that, I mentioned, the hard red spring,

they'll be bringing that in

with the higher protein blending it

with that good test weight hard red winter,

and milling the flour.

>>> Any news to report from the rest of the world?

>>> Not much going on right now,

I think it's kinda settled down

on Russia's wheat production,

the Black Sea production's gonna be higher this next year.

I think we're gonna see their exports,

rather than bunched up in the fall and winter time period,

I think they're gonna be spread out through the year.

I think the news may be in the corn crops in Ukraine,

you've got Ukraine increasing their corn production,

and trying to get in this export market.

I think a thing to watch is, will Russia,

with their high protein wheat,

try to get into the Mexican market,

and maybe even bring some into US

to blend with this lower protein US hard red winter wheat.

There's several things to watch.

Not much news, but quite a bit of speculation.

>>> Okay, Kim, good to see you, we'll see you again next week.

Thank you.

(upbeat music)

 

Naturally Speaking

>>> I'm standing next to a plant

that a lot of people dread brushing up against

throughout the summer months.

It's poison ivy, or poison oak, and it's a common plant

that you typically find in forests and woodlands,

or along the edge of forested areas.

It generally grows where there's at least partial shade,

and a lot of times the plant will be viny,

growing across the ground,

but you might also see it in a shrub-like stature like this,

but the characteristic to look for is this trifoliate leaf,

these three leaves, and you've probably heard the saying,

"Leaves of three, let it be"

It's because this plant, the sap from the leaves,

or the stems, any part of the plant really,

can cause a pretty significant dermatitis,

or skin rash irritation in lots of people.

Some people are more susceptible than others.

There are other plants

that are often confused with poison ivy, or poison oak.

In Western Oklahoma, there is a sumac, aromatic sumac,

that has a trifoliate leaf.

Probably the more common plant

that's misidentified as poison ivy is this one.

This is Virginia creeper, and it's very easy to tell apart,

because each of the leaves has five leaflets,

so instead of three, you'll see five.

This is Virginia creeper.

For most of us, it does not cause dermatitis,

but both of these plants

are actually beneficial for wildlife.

If you have poison ivy, or poison oak on your property,

it's not necessary to remove it,

unless it's in an area where you're going to have,

maybe kids playing,

or somebody that's gonna come in contact with it.

If it's just out in the forest,

just wear pants and long sleeve shirts

when you're walking through those areas

to keep it off your skin.

I wouldn't recommend mowing or doing anything

that can spread those oils on you.

You can hand pull it, especially if it's younger plants

that aren't deeply rooted,

you just need to make sure you wear gloves

that will keep any of the oils off of you

and I would wear eye protection too.

If you do spray the plant,

just make sure that you let it completely brown out

and dry out before you then try to physically remove it

to make sure all of those oils had a chance to degrade.

 

>>> That'll do it for us this week,

a reminder you can find us anytime at sunup.okstate.edu.

Also follow us on YouTube and social media.

We want to wish you and your families

a very happy and safe 4th of July,

and we'll see you next time, at Sunup.

(upbeat music)

 

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