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E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for February 15, 2020

This show includes the following segments: 

  • There is Still Time for Nitrogen Applications
  • Wheat Diseases Updated
  • Mestonet Weather
  • Livestock Marketing
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Vet Script
  • Market Monitor
  • Food Whys

 

There is Still Time for Nitrogen Applications

 (upbeat music)

>>> Hello, everyone and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

We begin today talking about nitrogen application

with Dr. Brian Arnall, our precision nutrient

management specialist and Brian, let's kinda start

with an overview of what's been going on

for producers the last couple of weeks.

>>> Yeah, we've had decent growth the last couple of weeks.

The wheat's really starting to kind of green up and move,

it's time where people are top dressing and thinking

about top dressing.

As you see right now, we had a great rain coming in,

and there's a lot of producers in the northwest

and central part of the state, they were able to get

their nitrogen on ahead of the rain.

As we move across a lot of our state, we're still too wet

to get it out there and I'm feeling that the producers

are thinking they're starting to get under a time crunch

and worried about getting nitrogen on.

One thing we gotta keep in mind

is that we're okay on time.

A lot of our research of recent looking at how late

and when do we apply nitrogen, so we still have plenty

of time even though we're getting closer

to that hollow stem.

So as we're down in the southern part of the state,

where it's just been too wet to get on,

whereas we look in the north part of the state

where it rained now and we have wet soils,

my recommendation is don't rush the application.

Don't get out there and rut the field.

We have time to make a good application on drier soil

and not mess up the field.

Wheat uses nitrogen most efficient near that hollow stem.

So as long as we get it on around hollow stem,

even if we've been deficient for a little bit,

our wheat crop will catch up.

>>> Well let's talk about, then, as we're waiting for this

kinda, the fields to dry out, the planning part of it

and making some of those decisions and maybe being

a little more strategic and a little more efficient.

What kind of guidance do you have for folks?

>>> So right now a lot of the questions I'm getting

are going back to source.

We have some prices that are kind of shrinking

and the difference between anhydrous urea

and UAN right now is really starting shrink in and get

a little bit tighter, meaning they're closer

and usually there's a wider gap.

And so I will start looking at some the cost

of the fertilizer versus the efficiency of it.

And the efficiency of application.

Anhydrous is typically a cheaper source than those

that have the capability to go in season as the top

dresser, even the pre-plant right now can do that

but the applicator cost is more expensive.

So when the other fertilizers start getting cheaper,

you start thinking about okay, I can get the same

amount of nitrogen for just a little bit more

and my application cost is less,

should I go ahead with that?

In many cases, the answer is yeah, you could do a

urea or UAN with the application.

On the urea side, we have to be careful.

If our soils are still wet, so if the mesonet says

the fractional soil index is above a point-7,

if we don't get rain within seven days,

our probability of losing urea, nitrogen through losses

is a lot higher or most recent research shows that.

Even when our average daily temperatures

are just above freezing, the soil temp's

right above 40, if we put urea on a wet soil

and it doesn't rain for seven days, we could lose

as much as 10-15 bushels of wheat, so you know,

hold that back.

That's when we wanna switch into a liquid UAN stream don.

Now we have a couple options with UAN, it can be

streamed on, which means you aren't gonna flat fan

like we would do a herbicide and it's broadcasting

little particles but it's streaming on a thicker

stream of UAN, that's really good in weather

like right now where we can get that UAN concentrated

on the soil or on the residue and wash down.

>>> Obviously a lot to think about with wheat

but not too early to kinda get your mind on

summer crops as well.

>>> Absolutely not, as soil temps are warming up,

we're getting those planters prepped and starting

to roll for the corn planting, sorghum and soybean

and elsewhere so we need to make sure we have

our proper nutrients in place to get

those summer crops growing.

If you don't have a soil sample done, it's not too late

to get a soil sample collected once it dries out.

Make sure you get a 0-6 inches if you're sending it in

to OSHA soil testing lab.

Or to whatever your lab that you send it to

recommends, whether it's 0-6, 0-7 inch depth.

Look at those PNK values, look at your pH,

we can't do anything about slow pH at this time really

because it takes too long for the soil to react

with the lime to get that pH to change.

But making sure we have a proper phosphorus, potassium

and all of our other nutrients in place to get that

summer crop up and going to get the best roots established,

to get that early season where you're going

to make it through our summer.

It's extremely important right now.

>>> Okay.

Thanks a lot, Brian, a lot to think about.

We'll see ya again soon.

(upbeat music)

 

Wheat Diseases Updated

>>> While the weather conditions in most of Oklahoma

have been pretty hectic when it comes to rain

and the fluctuating temperatures.

Bob when it comes to disease in most of our crops

it's been pretty mild.

>>> Yes it has, even starting from last fall

there was an effective late planting date for the wheat.

It was very small in the fall.

We never got any fall foliar diseases developing

and in fact in our diagnostic lab

of the half a dozen or so samples we've got in,

none of them have been positive for any disease or pathogen.

>>> Well going forward into the winter months,

we've had, you know, a lot of precipitation

in a lot of part of the state.

Is it surprising that nothing's developed

with that amount of rainfall?

>>> It is to some extent

because moisture usually favors a lot of the foliar diseases

and there just hasn't been any

and I think a lot of it is because of

that late planting date in the fall

and the wheat being small.

It just hasn't developed into diseases

at least to this point in time.

>>> In regards to like the temperature fluctuation,

does that have anything to do with it at all either?

>>> Yeah the temperature,

I mean the winter temperatures

are typically too cold for diseases to really get going

and that's why we look for 'em

because if we find some disease

then all it's waiting for

is that little bit warmer temperature

and as you said, we definitely have had the moisture

but one of the things I've watched for

is what's going on down in Texas.

And Doctor Amir Ibrahim;

who's the geneticists and breeder down at college station;

sent me a text today

that said that they've not seen any stripe rust

or leaf rust down in South Texas to this point in time.

And if they're not seeing stripe rust down there by now,

chances are we're not going to have much of it

up here in Oklahoma.

>>> And that's usually how that process works.

It starts down there

and then the inoculum period just moves up right?

>>> Right.

The winds, the southerly winds,

tend to blow that inoculum up here to Oklahoma

and there's not much inoculum down there

to be picked up at this point in time.

Now, Doctor Ibrahim did not think that

stripe rust would be a problem down there

but leaf rust could still come on

as the temperatures warm even more down there.

>>> What type of in regards to timing

when producers would start seeing leaf rust

when should they start being not really concerned

but just keeping an eye out?

>>> Well, even starting now, not so much for the rust

because there's not been any reports of it from Texas

but some of the leaf spotting diseases

such as tan spot and stagonospora septoria,

some of those in fact,

Josh Anderson; who's a senior associate researcher,

a research associate down at the noble research Institute.

He sent pictures to me this week of tan spot in some plots

that he has down there

and this is right on the red river,

so it's real close to Texas.

>>> All right, thanks Bob.

Bob Hunger; extension small grains pathologist;

here at Oklahoma state university.

(upbeat music)

 

Mestonet Weather

>>> Welcome to the weekly Mesonet weather report.

I'm Wes Lee.

Well, it was another wet one for Oklahoma.

Most of the state received additional moisture in either

the wet or frozen variety.

Seven day rainfall from Wednesday morning shows amounts

from nearly three inches in the Southeast

to less than a 10th of an inch in the far Northwest.

Soil moisture is just about as wet as it can get as well.

At the two inch level,

the ones on the fraction of water index,

represent the wettest side of the scale.

The point nines are just slightly behind.

Only the far Northwest counties

are showing numbers in the light green colors.

At our deepest centers in the soil located at 24 inches.

We see the Eastern two thirds of the state,

maxing out the scale with all the ones.

However, this map shows the remaining two areas in the state

that might benefit from additional rain fall.

This would be the Southwest and the panhandle.

These two regions

have numbers that reach the driest end of the scale at zero.

While the shallow soils there are in pretty good shape,

rains have not been heavy enough lately

to percolate to these deeper depths.

The forecast for the week ahead,

does not indicate that we will see much drying out.

Normal to slightly wetter than normal conditions

are expected.

Now here's Gary with a longer look

at the rainforest situation.

>>> Thanks Wes, and good morning everyone.

Well another really good week of moisture across the state

as Wes was mentioning.

A little bit of rain and snow across Western Oklahoma.

A lot of rain across Eastern Oklahoma.

How's that impact the latest drought monitor?

Let's take a look.

Now, I swear we're just one decent rain away

from completely getting rid of drought

across Southwest Oklahoma.

You can see that area.

Just a small kidney bean shape,

down there across the far Southwest.

A moderate drought, it's really on its way out.

If we can just get one more good amount of moisture,

I think we could get that down to at least the yellow,

the abnormally dry conditions,

which signals drought on its way out.

Now across the Western Panhandle,

they've had some decent moisture as well,

but not quite enough,

especially as we go back to the longer time frames,

to get rid of that moderate and severe drought

that plagues much of Cimarron

and a little bit of Texas county.

Now the rest of the state, we're looking really good.

So let's talk about that long-term rain

and it's deficits and surpluses.

We'll go back to the water year,

the beginning of the water year, October 1, 2019.

We can see less than two inches

in that region in the far western panhandle.

Less than 4 to 5 inches down there in the far southwest

and parts of west central Oklahoma.

Then we go all the way up to close to 30 inches

across eastern Oklahoma.

So a vast disparity in moisture across the state.

What else is new for the state of Oklahoma?

But when we look at the departure from normal

for that same time frame,

October first through the present,

then we start to see the deficits,

deficits in the southwestern parts of the state,

from one to close to three inches.

If we go to the percent of normal rain fall amount,

and take a look out there in the far western panhandle,

that's close to 50, 60% of normal,

for much of Cimarron County,

extending up close to Texas County.

So that's why we have

that moderate to severe drought persisting

out in that region of the state.

That's it for this time, we'll see you next time

on the Mesonet Weather Report.

 

Livestock Marketing

>>> The December trade data is in,

and that completes 2019.

So Darrell, what's the situation for beef exports.

>>> Well, 2019 beef exports were down a little bit.

About 4.4 percent on a year over year basis.

We were actually down to four of our five biggest markets,

so, we were down to Japan,

Mexico, Canada,

and Hong Kong, in particular, was off sharply.

We were still up on a year over year basis to South Korea,

which is now our number two market.

>>> So what about beef imports?

>>> On the import side we were actually up a little bit,

about two percent.

We had been basically flat for three years prior to that,

so, it really wasn't a big increase,

again up a little bit from

most of our major sources, so, Australia,

Canada, Mexico,

but we were off sharply from New Zealand last year.

>>> So looking ahead for 2020, in regards to trade,

what do you expect

and how does the coronavirus factor into all that?

>>> Well the coronavirus recently

has really thrown a big wrinkle in a lot of these markets

and still leaves us with a lot of uncertainty at this point.

We just don't know yet,

how big a deal this is gonna be.

If it turns into a

really major global health event

then this could be a serious disruption

to markets on a longer term basis.

Hopefully we're gonna get a handle on it

here in the next two to four weeks,

and start to see those impacts go away.

Beyond that, beef, our expectations are for both

beef exports to be up a little bit

and beef imports will likely be down a little bit.

We've got potential to

recoup a little bit of the loss to ground we have in Japan.

There's lots of potential in China right now.

And then on the import side,

we know Australia's not gonna export as much.

Many of the other countries are exporting

more to China as well.

>>> Yeah mentioning, speaking of China,

so what's the situation going on with China right now?

>>> On a beef market side, China has really changed

the situation for global beef markets.

Beef demand in China has grown tremendously

in the last four, five, six years.

So much so that in the last couple of years,

China is now the by far

the biggest beef importing country in the world.

And so, as I mentioned,

a number of major exporting countries

are redirecting a lot of their beef

into the China market.

Now the U.S. hasn't participated in that a great deal,

although our exports to China were up a little bit

in the last half of 2019.

But for the year we were only up about one,

they only represented about 1.1%

of our total exports,

so we hope to see a lot more potential going forward.

We've got a little better access now

with the phase one trade deal.

And so hopefully we'll see that grow

in the coming weeks and months and years.

>>> All right, thanks Darrell.

Dr. Darrell Peel, Livestock Marketing Specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Even though we're still in the throws of

the spring calving season, it's not too early

to begin thinking about

the breeding season that's going to be coming up here,

maybe in the middle of April on into May and June,

especially for those producers

that are going to use artificial insemination.

Because quite frankly, we have to plan

in advance of any AI breeding program,

especially the estrous synchronization

that we're going to use.

Estrus synchronization is the situation,

of course, where we're going to use one

or more different kinds of products working cattle

through the chute one or more times

before we actually do artificial insemination.

Choosing which estrus synchronization protocol

we're going to use on our place, it is really something

that takes some real investigation and some serious thought.

A way to get some help about which

estrus synchronization protocol you want to use,

is by going online and looking up the

estrus synchronization protocols that have been proposed

by what's called the Applied Reproduction Task Force.

That's a group of scientists from seven

different universities around the country that all work

in this area of cattle reproduction and they have

put together a list of the estrus synchronization protocols

that they think work best in different situations.

For instance, if you're more interested in being able to do

heat detection on your cows or heifers

for a long period of time, say up to two weeks,

then a simple synchronization protocol might work for you.

If you're only willing to do heat detection for a few days

then another system may work best.

And if you're one of those that just doesn't want to do

heat detection at all but wants to use timed AI,

where everything is brought in on a given morning

and everything is artificially inseminated that time,

then of course you'll use a different system.

Also, they categorize the different

estrus synchronization protocols for replacement heifers,

yearling replacement heifers, versus those that work best

for mature cows that have calves nursing on them

at the time of the AI breeding.

And so you'll want to keep that in mind as well.

Also, if you happen to have Brahman influenced cattle,

they have a separate estrus synchronization system

that research has shown has worked the best

for that particular breed set.

So, I think if you'll go online and look up the

Applied Reproduction Task Force, we've put a show link

on the SUNUP website just so that you can go

and look up those protocols that best fit your operation.

And you'll also see some other fact sheets

and some planning tools on that website that'll be

really helpful to you if you're going to do AI this year.

So I really recommend that you plan ahead,

go to the SUNUP website, that's sunup.okstate.edu,

look under show links and go to that link

and study a lesson before you do your

artificial insemination this year.

Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again next week

on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.

(upbeat guitar music)

 

Vet Script

>>> Salmonella infections in humans are not uncommon.

And most of these infections are associated

with some type of contaminated food that we eat.

But sometimes animal contact can be the source

of the infection.

An unusual fact that the CDC has found that children

tend to me more associated with animal contact

than with food when it comes to salmonella infections,

especially young children.

In 2019, we had over 1,000 people that were infected

with salmonella that were associated with backyard poultry.

And about 287 of those people were hospitalized

and we had two of those individuals die

from those infections.

In these populations children are overrepresented.

In a study that looked at the years 1990 to 2014,

about 31% of the cases were children five years of age

or less, and about 42% of those cases were in children

10 years of age or less.

So children are overrepresented in this population,

and the experts tell us that the reason

for this is probably, one,

their immune systems are not fully mature,

and two, they have poor hand hygiene practices.

Another reason that we might see is just the lack

of knowledge that these animals can infect them.

In a study that looked at people who had been infected

with salmonella that were associated with backyard poultry,

most of these people had some very close contact

with their animals.

They snuggled them, they kissed them,

they kept them in their house, practices that are probably

conducive for getting infection.

The other thing people may not realize,

animals are healthy and look healthy,

that doesn't necessarily mean that they cannot pass

pathogens in their feces or other bodily fluids.

The most important thing we need to remember is

that when children have contact with animals,

they need to make sure and wash their hands afterwards.

The CDC tells us that you should wet your hands,

put soap on, lather up, and rub those hands vigorously

for about 20 seconds.

I don't wanna discourage anyone from having chickens

in their backyards.

It's a great hobby.

It's a way that people that live in some of the

in town, or the cities can have animals

and can learn more about where their food comes from.

But it's really important that we protect ourselves

and make sure that we practice good hand hygiene

after touching any animal.

If you'd like some more information

about salmonella infections that are

associated with backyard poultry,

just go to sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> Kim Anderson, our Crop Marketing Specialist

joins us now.

Kim, let's start with an overview this week

of what's been going on in the wheat markets.

>>> Well, since the end of January, not much.

You've got the Oklahoma price around $4.45.

It's up plus or minus $0.04 on price move.

Now, the last half of January, we took about, oh,

20 in the last week, and then overall,

around $0.45 off those prices.

>>> Let's talk about why, exactly, prices dropped.

>>> Well, the world's got too much wheat.

Essentially, the 2019-20 wheat harvest is complete

with finishing up with finishing up in South America.

But why we've had lower prices is we've just got

an excess amount of wheat.

You look at a record world crop at 28.1 billion bushels,

the world stocks to use ratio at 38.2%,

the US stocks to use ration at around 44%.

Now, if you look at the Black Sea area,

those countries' stock to use ratio's around 9%.

So we have lower prices 'cause we got a lot more wheat.

>>> Let's talk about Oklahoma and how we compare

to the rest of the world.

>>> Well, this last week, Russia sold wheat into Egypt

for $239.43 a metric ton,

that's about 6.52 a bushel.

If you go from Houston to Egypt,

that ocean freight's around $0.70, $0.72 cents.

It is lower than it was about a month ago.

Houston, about $0.20 in and out of that elevator;

$1.20 to get it back to Oklahoma,

gets the Oklahoma price right at $4.40.

That means we're competitive in that north African market

and we're really competitive in the Pacific Islands

there in eastern Asia.

>>> Any hope for higher prices?

That's on everybody's mind.

>>> Well, I don't think right now

we know how much wheat we got in the bins

from last year's crop.

The market's watching their crop conditions

for the 2020 crop.

Right now, everything looks relatively good

around the world, except for Australia,

but they'll be planting relatively soon,

and I understand they are getting some rains, there.

So I don't think any hope and it's--

We may get a little rally out of it,

but not over the next couple of months.

Uh, we're gonna have to lose a crop somewhere

to get higher prices.

>>> What about protein, then?

>>> Well, if you look at the protein basis in Kansas City

for ordinary wheat that's less then 11.

It's $0.80.

At 11% to 11.8 it's anywhere from 90 to $1.05.

12% $1.30, if you get 12.6%, $1.50.

So you got around a 70% premium

if you can get 12.6 wheat.

>>> With all this in mind, you guidance for wheat producers?

>>> Well, I heard a big buyer of wheat,

a flour miller and baker this last week,

and he said what they're concerned about is protein.

I think, produce, they want test wheat

60 pound, plus, and they want 12.4 protein or better.

Deliver that and you're gonna get a relatively good price.

>>> Okay, great talking with you.

We'll see you next week, Kim.

(upbeat music)

 

Food Whys

>>> What ingredient was described as

especially dear to the gods by the philosopher, Plato?

And a divine substance by the poet, Homer?

The answer is salt.

Food grade salt is defined by the food and chemical codex

based on its purity, which may range

from 99.8 to 99.95%

based on its source and how it's processed.

Table salt is comprised mostly of sodium chloride

but may contain small amounts of other chemical compounds

such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride,

and potassium chloride.

Verifying the purity of salt is important

because the associated compounds and trace metals

can cause problems in certain food applications.

For example, calcium and magnesium can interfere

with the emulsion in margarine.

They can also cause off-flavors

and colors in mayonnaise.

Salt used in commercial applications

may contain food additives not necessarily found

in your typical table salt, such as anti-caking agent

that prevents salt crystals from caking

or clumping together.

In addition to flavoring food, salt can also be effective

in controlling microbial growth.

Foods like pickles and processed meat

use salt as a preservative where it inhibits the growth

of disease-causing and/or spoilage microorganisms.

Other foods such as cheese use salt to control

the amount of acid produced by lactic acid bacteria

during fermentation to help control

the product's final flavor.

So whether it's dear, divine, or of concern,

salt plays a large role in the food that we eat.

For more information, please visit sunup.okstate.edu

or fapc.biz.

(upbeat music)

 

>>> That'll do it for us this week.

Remember, you can find us anytime at sunup.okstate.edu

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Have a great weekend, everyone

and remember Oklahoma agriculture starts at SUNUP.

(upbeat music)

 

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