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Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

Phone: (405) 744-4065
FAX: (405) 744-5738
E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for March 16, 2019

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • The window for top-dress is closing
  • Measuring soil moisture
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Livestock Marketing
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Hair sheep vs. wool sheep
  • Market Monitor
  • Food Whys

 

(upbeat music)

 The window for top-dress is closing

>>> Hello everyone, and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Weather is top of mind this week.

A lot of Oklahoma wheat fields are so wet

that top dress of nitrogen on wheat fields

is behind schedule.

SUNUP's Kurtis Hair talks with Precision

Nutrient Management Specialist Brian Arnall

for some guidance.

>>> Usually this time of year it's the time

that producers are wrapping up with top dressing,

but Brian, the weather hasn't really been conducive

for that, so what can producers do in this interim period?

>>> So right now, as we just got, what you see

all the water behind us flowing through the fields,

we're saturated, we're wet, a lot of people

don't have their top dress on because it's been so wet.

We need to be making sure that we have our plans

ready to go forward.

We know it seems late.

You know, this time of year like you said,

we're already done with our top dress

the majority of our acres and many of them

haven't had any nitrogen.

It's not too late and I wanna stress that

even though, even on our duel purpose,

our grazing wheat, we're past hollow stem,

we still have a little bit of time to fertilize

that ground and on our grain-only,

we're not to hollow stem yet.

We have time to get rigs across the field,

get nitrogen on them and have good benefit.

Our recent research at Oklahoma State University

shows that nitrogen can be applied at or even after

hollow stem and receive full benefit

of the nitrogen you use and even result in a better

quality, end-use quality because of our protein content

because we're applying it close to when the plant

actually needs the nitrogen.

>>> What type of applications should producers

be thinking about to be applying?

>>> So it's kind of a one hand and the other.

One hand, you have, you wanna be as efficient

as possible as far as the nutrient and the nitrogen

but you also have, we need to get it done

so we're balancing the most ease of use

and the most efficient.

Our two primary options right now

are gonna be a dry or a liquid,

so urea's gonna be a good option because

of spreader capability, if you can get across ground

that has not had hollow stem yet

or you have narrow tires, and you cross ground that way,

however we have to be cautious that if we have

wet ground like we have out here right now

and we get over wet ground with a dry urea,

and we don't have rain soon after, we're gonna

have a lot of losses.

That's when we get the most when we apply urea

to wet soil, it doesn't rain, we have warm temperatures

in the 60s and 70s and we have wind.

So avoid urea if the ground still has

a lot of moisture in the top surface.

UAN is gonna be a good option you can run with sprayers,

it means wide application widths.

You can run UAN either as a flat thin

which gives you small droplets like when you're

applying a herbicide, or with streamers,

which concentrates that stream down in.

Now on both of those, when you apply the UAN

with the flat thin, you can use a herbicide at times,

that's a good option to make efficiency

of your application use.

However, if you have a lot of residue,

like wheat straw or any kind of dead residue showing,

I don't really like the flat thin,

because if we don't get rain within a day or two,

that UAN can stick to that residue and it'll be tied up.

Now it's not lost but it could be tied up

during the wheat's production cycle.

Streamer nozzles concentrates UAN into

thicker streams and actually pushes it down

through that residue.

If you don't have residue, either stream or a flat thin

will work 'cause you're contacting the wheat

or you're contacting soil which gets good uptake.

>>> So, with the weather being what it is now,

and producers do need to wait,

is there a margin for error when it is gonna be too late?

>>> Yeah, we really start transitioning on too late as the

closer we get after hollow stem,

a week or two after hollow stem we're still pretty good.

The closer we get to boot, we're losing.

The closer we get to flag leaf,

we're losing yield potential.

Now, I've also shown that if you're deficient

you can apply nitrogen up to flag leaf

and get a yield response.

However, you have lost your top end for sure.

So, it depends.

If you have yellow wheat, apply nitrogen

all the way through flag leaf.

If you have green wheat then walk away.

That's also where the N-Rich strip comes into play.

If you have an N-Rich strip out there

you understand whether you have an

end response or it's just something else.

>>> All right, thanks Brian.

If you would like some more information

on fertilizer applications go to

our website sunup.okstate.edu.

(upbeat music)

 

Measuring soil moisture

>>> I think it goes without saying that all of this

rain over the past few months...what?

Six months now?

Has really helped the moisture across the state.

And Jason, is this a good time for those folks

that are thinking about making that conversion

from conventional till to just

go ahead and do a no-till system?

>>> Yeah, particularly if they're looking at

a rotation to a summer crop.

No-till is very much more successful

when we have a crop rotation,

and rotating to a summer crop out of

a wheat, like fallen grains out or something like that,

would be a great option for guys to break that

cycle of pests that's in their wheat.

And with the moisture we have particularly

in central and eastern Oklahoma,

we've got...we've been very well blessed with

with good moisture.

Even out west, if you look at the last six to 12 months,

we've been very blessed.

Although, there are areas along

the Texas border that are getting dry.

In general, we're pretty moist.

>>> And there's actually a way for producers,

the Mesonet site is one way,

of knowing your soil moisture, but there's a way

for producers to check it on their land.

>>> Yeah, the Mesonet is outstanding.

It gives you a sense of the soil moisture

under native warm season grasses.

But if you want to go out and really

assess your crop land,

you really need to do a site-specific evaluation 'cause the

the evapotranspiration and all that's

gonna be different on crop land

depending on what kind crop has grown

in the past and what you're growing there now.

And what I use is a simple rod.

And so, here in Stillwater, we can pull this.

We were able to push this rod five feet in the ground.

>>> Wow.

>>> And this is a...I think this is a Norge clay loam,

silty clay loam.

At depth, its gonna have a pretty

good amount of clay in it.

But this soil could easily hold

2 1/2 inches per foot.

So that means its got 12, 12 1/2

inches of moisture, plant-available moisture in it

is what we can estimate from this.

>>> So if a producer wants to know

an estimate for their soil moisture

they have a measuring device like that,

but it's also important to know your soil type.

>>> Yeah, so sandier soils are gonna have

lower capacity to hold moisture.

If you could push a rod in a sandy soil like this

to five feet, it probably gonna have half of the

water holding capacity this has

so it might have five or six inches

of total plant-available water.

And then your loams are gonna be upwards,

two, 2 1/2, three inches per foot,

and so the deeper you can push it,

the more water you have.

And, and you know, a lot of guys will say,

"Well I can't push it that deep."

And I say well, because of compaction.

And if you have compaction where an adult man

can't push this in the ground that's probably

the depth of rooting or effective water extraction

that you're gonna have.

And so that's how much moisture you're

really gonna have for that crop.

>>> And that brings up a good question.

Different crops require different soil depths.

But, kinda take us through, what would be a good

soil depth for producers to shoot for with soil moisture?

>>> Well, the deeper, the better.

And so it's really, you know, like I say,

right now, we're blessed with a good

historic rainfall for the last,

the winter months and so in general

we're gonna be pretty moist.

Even in those wheat fields in far western Oklahoma,

if they picked up some rains back in September,

and it didn't all run off then they're gonna have

stored that moisture and so you may even be dry

at the surface, but if you can push through

that surface and then get to the subsoil that's moist

then you can really assess what your potential is,

given that we hopefully continue to get some

rain through the spring to get you to the full

rooting depth of that crop.

>>> Okay, thank you very much, Jason Ward,

soil and water conservation specialist,

here at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Welcome, to the weekly Mesonet Weather Report.

There have been a couple of widespread

rain events that moved across the state this week.

On Wednesday, March 13th,

a fast moving front brought rain to every Mesonet station.

The tip of the Panhandle

received less than a tenth of an inch

at Kenton and Boise City,

while the center of the state received over an inch.

Acme in southern Grady county,

topped the chart, with 1.78 inches.

If we look back, for the past seven days,

we see some pretty good rainfall totals.

The usual, wettest part of the state,

came in with 3.12 inches at Broken Bow,

while the Panhandle only received 21 hundredths.

Cumulative rain fall is where each

rainfall event is stacked on top of the others.

Cumulative rainfall for the entire state since the

start of the year has been slightly ahead of schedule

since early January.

The blue fill line shows the long-term cumulative

average while the red line shows the amount actually

received in 2019 to date.

Gary is up next to talk more about this year's

precipitation.

>>> [Gary] Thanks, Wes, and good morning, everyone.

Well, as Wes mentioned earlier, the great rains we

had this week certainly did a lot of good for farmers

out across Western Oklahoma and other parts of the state

as well.

Settled the dust even though we had a lot of wind,

we didn't have a lot of that blowing dirt,

and also did wonders for our drought picture.

Let's go straight to the drought monitor map and see

what we have.

Now, this looks worse than it actually is because our

cut-off for considering precipitation for the drought

monitor is on Tuesday morning, and Wednesday was the day

we had the big rains across the state, so we had that

little bit of abnormally dry and moderate drought

out across far-West Oklahoma, so while the drought

monitor still shows a little bit of drought, of dry

conditions, not necessarily going to be there next week.

And it looks even better on the consecutive days with

less than a quarter inch of rainfall map from the

mesonet.

Almost the entire state is now under a week

with days without at least a quarter inch of rain.

The only places left would be the far-Western panhandle,

and hopefully, they can get some in the next week or so,

and get their color back to green on this map, but we've

certainly made improvements in this map as well.

Now, as we look at the amounts from the year to date,

so the beginning of the year to the current date,

on the mesonet, this is basically a climatological

rainfall map for the state because it shows the

lesser amounts across Western Oklahoma, increasing

dramatically beginning as we get into Eastern Oklahoma,

so two inches plus across Western Oklahoma and greater

than a foot in some areas across Southeast Oklahoma.

Eight to ten inches as we go farther north, and again,

that's about where you would expect this to be.

Now, if you look at that departure from normal, we've

certainly diminished a lot of those deficits that we had

throughout the last sixty to ninety days that were

growing and causing those drought concerns across

Southwest Oklahoma, so a lot of the state has diminished

their deficits, diminished their drought worries,

and we're really looking good right now, especially

considering that Spring is on its way.

(cheery music)

That's it for this time.

We'll see you next time on the mesonet weather report.

 

Livestock Marketing

>>> [Anchor] We're here with Derrell Peel,

our livestock marketing specialist,

and Derrell, let's kind of start with just

an overall look at how the cattle markets are right now

and whether they're following seasonal patterns

at this time.

>>> [Derrell] Yeah, you know, so far this year, I think

our general expectation for the year is that cattle

markets will kind of be in a sideways pattern,

so no real trend up or down, and when that happens,

we would expect to see the seasonal patterns follow

pretty closely.

And we're seeing that right now.

If you look at the lightweight calves, or stockyard cattle,

they've been trending up since January.

We're probably close to a seasonal peak here

in late March, early April.

The bigger feeder cattle, seven and eight weight kind

of cattle actually have a seasonal low, and we've

seen that as well.

We've seen those prices for those eight weight steers

weaken a little bit here.

For fed cattle, again, we normally see a seasonal

peak towards the end of the first quarter, and we've

been struggling a little bit to get up to that.

In fact, given the weather problems we've had,

I think a lot of people are a little frustrated

that we haven't seen more seasonal strength,

but it's there.

So we're mostly following that seasonal pattern

at this point.

>>> [Lyndall] Let's look at the weather a little bit more.

Winter has really dug in in some areas and hung on.

How is the weather impacting the markets?

>>> [Derrell] You know, there's sort of two issues here:

one is the weather having enough impact broadly to

impact market prices and so on, and I think we're seeing

a little of that in the fed cattle market again,

and certainly probably in the box beef market.

We've had some difficulty getting cattle out of wheat

pastures, it's been muddy and sloppy.

And I think that's the real issue for cattle producers,

both out in the country as well as in feed lots.

There's a lot of management issues here, whether or

not it translates into overall market impacts.

These wet, sloppy conditions we've calving now, a lot

of Spring calving cows calving right now, and these

are very challenging conditions to get baby calves

on the ground.

>>> [Lyndall] Now the USDA recently released the final

trade data for 2018.

How would you summarize the cattle and beef trade data

for last year?

>>> [Derrell] You know, it took awhile to get this.

We've had some delays, but we finally got it,

and we had a very good year.

Trade was very beneficial for cattle markets last year,

exports overall were up over ten percent.

Imports were steady, just fractionally higher, so the

net effect there was a very positive move to again

absorb this increasing supplies that we've seen over

the last couple of few years, but overall, we've seen good

strength, good growth in our markets to Japan, South Korea,

Mexico, all major markets for us, and they were all

up last year.

>>> [Lyndall] What's your take on the first quarter

of 2019 so far?

>>> Well, again, we're still waiting for data.

(both laugh)

We're still playing catch-up.

We've got a little bit more to catch up with the trade data,

but it looks like we've continued pretty well.

Again, there are certainly some concerns

about potential trade disruptions.

But from a cattle standpoint,

we haven't seen a lot of that yet.

And so at this point in time, (country rock music)

it looks pretty positive.

>>> Okay, thanks a lot, Darrell.

We'll see you again soon.

>>> You bet.

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> As we go through this or any calving season,

I think it's important to remind producers

that they want to keep a good record

of any multiple births that took place in their herd,

especially if they have a situation

where a heifer calf and a bull calf

are born twin to each other,

or in the case of triplets,

if there's multiple sexes within those three calves.

What we're concerned about is

that heifer calf, born twin to a bull,

will in over 95% of the cases

be incapable of reproducing as she grows up

to eventually be a two-year-old, three-year-old cow.

This is a condition called freemartinism, and it occurs

as these embryos are being developed in the common uterus.

And around day 40 of the pregnancy,

that's when you might see some intermingling

of the fluids and blood in that one placenta,

where the male calf is actually developing

a little bit sooner than the female.

And therefore there might be some cells or some hormones

being produced by that male embryo

that greatly influence the underdevelopment, if you will,

of the female reproductive tract.

And that's why, then, these heifer calves born twin to bulls

may look normal, but upon real close examination,

you'd find that they have what we call

infantile or underdeveloped reproductive tract,

and they'll be incapable of breeding if we, by some mistake,

would keep them as replacement heifers.

Now, some people might be concerned about where

in the embryo transfer industry, there might be-

well, there's certainly multiple embryos

being produced at any one flush.

And some of those, of course, will be male and some female.

But in the case of embryo transfer,

the transfer is actually taking place

at about day 7 after insemination or breeding,

long before this differentiation of about 40 days

between the male and the female embryo would take place.

And so there's no concern as far as the health,

the normal viability, of female embryo transfer calves

being born in a flush with male calves.

I think the important thing for most producers is, again,

to write down in their record book

if they have a set of twins.

And especially if one of those is a heifer

and the other is a bull,

write that heifer calf's number down

so that you don't make a mistake of keeping her,

spending the money to develop her as a replacement heifer,

and then finding out that she's incapable of breeding.

(calm banjo music) 

Hey, we look forward

to visiting with you again next week

on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.

 

Hair sheep vs. wood sheep

>>> Wool sheep are popular breeds in Oklahoma,

but can present some challenges given our very hot summers.

However, there might be some other options to consider,

as researchers found in some recent studies

at Oklahoma State University.

>>> We actually got into the hair sheep business

about 6 years ago,

and so we're doing a couple of research projects here.

We're basically looking to see if we have

any parasite-resistant genetics.

We know that the St. Croix breed

is fairly parasite-resistant

or at least tolerates it better.

So we're looking if we have any individuals

within this whole flock out here

that are very parasite-resistant,

and so far we've been very pleased.

We're also doing a comparison of rotational grazing

versus consistent grazing, or constant grazing,

to see if the differences in rotational grazing

will reduce the parasite load.

Well, even our wool breeds that we have out here

are mostly raised for meat in this state.

The difference is, though,

that they handle the colder temperatures extremely well,

but they don't handle the head and humidity

that we have in the summer,

and that's where the hair sheep have worked extremely well.

>>> So as far as management on the hair sheep,

it's way, way less intense.

The wool sheep that we have at the barn,

we have to be with them quite a bit,

especially during lambing season.

So we will actually do night checks at times

and pull sheep if we need to

or deliver sheep, put them in jugs, things like that,

and manage them much more intensely.

These hair sheep out here

are much more of a commercial setting.

>>> We manage them more like we handle the cattle operation.

Basically, yeah, we're there.

We watch them every once in a while at lambing time

to make sure there's not any problems.

But for the most part, they're on their own.

Just like that mature cow or that brood cow

will do a good job of getting her calf up

and taking care of her,

the same thing goes on with these girls,

and we really don't worry about them very darn much.

They work extremely well because they are very heat-tolerant

and somewhat parasite-tolerant.

>>> So as far as the wool sheep,

we'll actually shear most of the lambs at the barn.

We actually haul our sheep to a sheep shearer.

Pay him $5 to $7 a head

to actually shear those ewes twice a year,

mainly just to keep them cool.

Heat stress is real.

Oklahoma is, obviously, a very hot state,

and there's times where if the wind don't blow enough,

that there are times that those wool breeds

can get heat stress, and that becomes an issue.

>>> Basically, our wool sheep,

if you land in April or May around here,

you're going to have a 5-10% death loss

throughout the summer because they don't handle

the heat and humidity well at all.

>>> These guys out here in this pasture, they love it.

The hotter and drier, the better.

>>> The only real parasite that we deal with

are internal parasites, and really the biggest one

is the roundworm, it's just the common roundworm.

It is a huge problem in the goat industry around here,

it is a huge problem in the wool sheep

industry around here,

and we have to de-worm as much as every 60 days

when we go through the summer, whereas these hair sheep

in the projects that we've been doing for the last

5 or 6 years, basically we're de-worming about 4 or 5 

out of these 70 or 80 ewes during the summertime,

and that's about it.

The biggest thing is with the strength of our

Bermuda grass pastures and our summer forage

in the State of Oklahoma, the hair sheep are made

perfectly for that.

The fact that they are somewhat parasite-resistant,

I'm not saying they're parasite-resistant,

but somewhat resistant, is a huge positive as compared to

our wool breeds out there.

So there are some real positives with the summer forage

that we have available and the use of hair sheep.

(upbeat music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> It wouldn't be a sun-up program if we didn't ask Kim,

where are we at with the price of wheat right now?

>>> When you look at what's going on in the market over, say,

the past month, month and a half,

we've taken a dollar off the casage July of wheat price.

The basis has increased a little bit, but this last week

we got a 23 cent positive price move in one day.

I mean, we hadn't had that in some time.

So, overall, we got a dollar to 80 cents

lower prices right now.

>>> So what's causing yet again even lower prices?

>>> Well, we can blame it on a lot of things.

I think one of the big factors is your managed money funds,

those speculators on soft red winter wheat,

they're short over 72,000 contracts,

that's 362 million bushels.

Hard red winter wheat's a record short position

by the funds, almost 47,000 contracts,

that's 234 million bushels of wheat

that they're short on right now,

and as they got into those short positions,

light volume in the market, and it just drove prices down.

Another factor I think is the dollar,

the index of the dollar got over 97% there.

It has dropped off the last week,

and I think that's probably one of the reasons

we had a little rally.

>>> Last week and the week before,

you've been really talking about the forward contract prices.

Is it worth forward contracting right now?

>>> I don't think so.

There's a lot can happen between now and the harvest.

You can forward-contract in most of Oklahoma around

$4.30 a bushel, plus or minus 15 or 20 cents.

In the Panhandle it's $4.20.

The basis in most of Oklahoma is minus 20 cents,

somewhere in that vicinity, below that July contract,

and you got the Panhandle that's minus 30 cents.

>>> So taking all of that information and then looking at

first hollow stem approaching across Oklahoma,

or moving its way across Oklahoma right now,

is it worth, financially, is it worth

pulling cattle off the wheat, or grazing the wheat out?

>>> Well I think it's more than a "financial position"

if you've had those cattle on there all winter,

and if they're on there they have been,

then what weight are they?

You gotta put a pencil to it, and I'd even make it

more simple: are you a cattleman or you a wheat producer?

If you're a cattleman, you'll probably want to keep

the cattle out there, and you probably got

lightweight cattle in that you can carry 'em through,

and that might be a smart thing for you to do.

If you're a wheat producer, and I'm talking about

wheat producers that average 40, 50, maybe even 60 bushels

per acre, you probably want to stay with wheat

because that's where your expertise is,

that's where you can make your money,

and that's where you're gonna make your money over time.

Also, as I said, it's a long time between now and harvest,

it's a few months, but we make this crop

in March, April and May time period.

We can either increase yield quite a bit or

decrease yield quite a bit.

Price can change.

We took a dollar of in a month in a half,

we can put a dollar back on there in a couple weeks

if the situation turns.

So a lot can happen right now, but it boils down to

what do you like to do and what does your pencil say,

or computer say in this case, you should do.

>>> Okay, thank you very much, great advice.

Kim Anderson, Grain Marketing Specialist

here in Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Food Whys

>>> Air fryers are a popular new kitchen appliance

that you may have heard about,

but how are they like and different from deep fat fryers?

Both air fryers and deep fat fryers have a compartment,

or chamber, that holds the food,

and both have some source of heat that cooks the food.

For deep fat fryers, that heat source comes from below

and is often some source of electrically-powered

coil or element, but can also be a gas-powered flame.

The heat source for an air fryer is also

an electrically-powered coil or element,

however, it typically sits above the food.

Air fryers have one additional component

that deep fryers don't, and that's a fan that sits

immediately above, or sometimes to the side,

of the heating element.

The most noticeable difference between deep fat fryers

and air fryers is how they cook.

Deep fat fryers use a significant amount of oil

to conduct energy between the heating element and the food.

Air fryers, on the other hand, use forced air to

conduct energy between the heating element and the food.

And while it's possible to cook food in an air fryer

without any oil, for best results, it's often suggested

to spray a small amount of oil

across the surface of the food.

So are the finished foods identical?

Not necessarily.

Foods that have already been partially cooked,

such as french fries or chicken strips

from the grocery store, are more likely to have

similar results between the two cooking methods.

For foods prepared in an air fryer,

they're not going to be necessarily identical in every way

compared to foods in a deep fat fryer.

However, the air fryer will use less fat.

For more information, please visit sunup.okstate.edu

or fapc.biz, or download the FAPC app.

 

>>> That'll do it for us this week.

Remember you can find us anytime at our website

at sunup.okstate.edu, (upbeat music)

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone,

and remember, Oklahoma agriculture starts at Sunup.

 

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