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Oklahoma State University
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FAX: (405) 744-5738
E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for March 9, 2019

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • First hollow stem
  • How to you scout for wheat rust?
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Market Monitor
  • Hypothermia and lambs
  • U. S. trade negotiations
  • Mesonet Weather

 

(upbeat music)

First hollow stem

>>> Hello everyone and welcome to SUNUP, I'm Lyndall Stout.

With the colder temperatures we've seen

first hollow stemhas been delayed across most of Oklahoma.

But that's all about to change.

If you haven't yet started scouting,

now's a great time to start.

We begin this week in Chickasha

with our Southwest area agronomist, Heath Sanders.

>>> First hollow stem is basically

the plant, the wheat plant is going from a vegetative state

into a tree productive state.

Basically, that little head is starting to

move from down really low and then

start moving up through that stem.

Much of our wheat that is planted in this area in this state

is for dual purpose system.

In order for this system to work,

we really have to really pay attention

to the first hollow stem and our environment

and our weather influence this rapidly.

You just never know with our weather.

Up until the last week, we've been,

we've had a little cold weather,

but we've been pretty mild for the most part.

We've had good moisture.

We saw things started to rapidly change

where we started seeing a few varieties go out

as far as first hollow stem.

This past week, we've been really cold

and that's basically like, just kinda,

hitting the pause button

on what this plant, what this wheat plant is gonna do.

As we start warming up towards the end of this week

and then as we get in the 50s and 60 degree temperature

even in 70s, this crop's gonna continue on

at a real rapid pace.

So we just really have to pay attention to our surroundings,

our environment and what varieties we have

out there that we're grazing.

So, you know, going out and checking an ungrazed area.

Because when we check a grazed area

that maturity's already being delayed.

We're checking for first hollow stem.

The dime is a perfect, I mean, generally someone

has a dime in the pickup or in their pocket,

that's 1.5 centimeters, which is,

or roughly around a half an inch.

When we get that hollow stem is above that

dime which is 1.5 centimeters, then that field

or that variety has already hit first hollow stem.

First hollow stem advisor provided with the Oklahoma Mesonet

and that is a great tool to basically kinda

give you an idea of where you're at.

Basically, what it is, is modeling.

It models the predictions.

And so, as the soil temperature increases,

we can model a one week or a two week out

and kinda see where we're gonna be at

and as we start to see the changes on the map,

10, 20, 30 percent that you may have a probability

that you could see first hollow stem,

we really have got to be out there checking that

and making sure, once we get to about 50% probability

then it's, it's time to start pulling the calves off of it.

First hollow stem is just kinda that point

that you don't need anything to damage that wheat head.

So if it's being bitten off by, you know,

through a cow or a calf, then that basically,

we start losing yield potential.

If we go past that first week of first hollow stem,

you know, we're gonna see an 8 to 10% yield reduction.

As we go to that second week, we can see up to 30% or more.

And that's why it is so important

that we pull those calves off.

Allow recovery time in order for it to go in to make grain.

But not only grain but for hay as well.

 

How to you scout for wheat rust?

>>> And it is that time of year when

producers are out scouting for first hollow stem,

but there are some things in the near future

that producers should be looking for.

>>> Yeah, most years this would be the time

to start looking for diseases and insect pests,

especially down in southern Oklahoma

and even into central Oklahoma.

But this year it's been cold

and our wheat was planted so much later last year

so a lot of it is really small.

That, it's not quite as imperative,

but this is getting right on the edge of time

to be looking for those insect passing

and different diseases.

>>> We've been fortunate with moisture across the state

and, you know, it is gonna start warming up.

Those are some of the things that help spread diseases

from the south, correct?

>>> Definitely, especially because rusts have been reported,

leaf rust has been reported in southern and central Texas,

and as the temperatures warm and the winds start

coming predominantly from the south,

the spores will blow up here.

It's gonna depend not just on the moisture we have

but more so on rainfall, and dews, and things like that,

but typically there are conditions favorable

for the rust especially to get going.

>>> What should producers be looking for whenever they

do head out to their fields scouting for that?

>>> Well, at this time of year, they're gonna have to

get down on their hands and knees and look down low

to see what's going on.

As the wheat grows a little higher, a lot of times you

can see a little bit of a different shade of green,

kind of a yellowish green in there,

if you really have severe rust going.

Those would be the kinds of things, but you're still

gonna have to get out on the field and

look down in that canopy to see what's going on.

>>> Just for the non-producer out there,

why does rust cause a problem on the wheat plant?

>>> Well, rust is what's called a biotrophic pathogen

it needs living tissue to live on,

and it's kind of like when we get infected with a cold

that cold isn't gonna kill us,

but it's gonna derive nutrition and replicating

and so on and so forth, and that's what rust does

on the plant, it derives its nutrition without really

killing the plant outright, so it'll take nutrients from

the plant, if you get a total leaf infection

which can occur, especially when it gets into the flag leaf

then you're not gonna have near as much photosynthate

or green filling, you'll have shriveled kernels,

the plant will lose more moisture,

it just weakens the plant.

>>> We're here on the agronomy farm

at Oklahoma State in Stillwater,

and have you seen any rust here where we are?

>>> Well, we're actually in one of

Dr. Brett Carver's nurseries, called the DPON,

Dual Purpose Observation Nursery,

and you can see part of it has been mowed,

and those are the entries that he's interested in raiding

but in between those entries he has these long strips

of a very susceptible variety to leaf rust

and stripe rust both, as well as powdery mildew

and that's what I come out and look at first

because when you get down into here and start looking

you can bring up leaves like that one

where you do see some of the rust pustules still alive on it

and the little bit of the orange-ish color in there

indicates sporulation and the fact that

the rust spores are viable.

A lot of those lower leaves are dead,

there's not much else going on down there

but there is definitely some leaf rust that has

over-wintered here, and that will serve as that

initial inoculum to come up as well as temperatures warm

and hence will rely on dews and rainfall

to provide the moisture to get further infection,

but mostly it's the spores that blow up from Texas.

>>> So on the lower levels

where the leaves are dead or yellowed,

that could contribute to future rust

on these plants right here?

>>> Oh yeah, it could, it could.

Now the really dead leaves down low,

they may have rust pustules on them

but those will be not alive, because

you can maybe see some a little bit

in that dead area there--

They're not gonna provide inoculum

because as I said, it needs living tissue

so it's gonna have to be on a partially live leaf yet.

>>> Okay, thank you very much Bob Hunger,

and for more information on this

check out our website, sunup.okstate.edu

(upbeat music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> We've spoken many times before on the cow calf corner

about the importance of body condition

of the cows at calving time, as that affects then

their rebreeding performance during

the following breeding season.

And I certainly still believe that that's

the most important determining factor.

However, we do know from research that what happens

between calving and the start of the breeding season,

in terms of the body condition of these cows,

can also have a pretty sizeable influence

on the rebreeding performance.

Research done here in the eighties

at Oklahoma State University shows you

what can happen if cows are allowed to lose

quite a little bit of body condition

between calving and the start of the breeding season.

What they looked at was a set of cows

that were in, what we would probably call,

good body condition for adult beef cows.

Those in our 1 through 9 scoring system,

they were a body condition score of a 5.

Half of the cows were then fed

to maintain that body condition during early lactation

going into and through the breeding season.

The other half of the cows were allowed

to lose a full body condition score between calving

and their start of the breeding season.

As they followed these cattle,

then through the following breeding season

and then into the pregnancy chesting the following fall,

there was a sizable difference.

Those cows that lost a full body condition

between calving and their start of the breeding season

rebred at a rate of 21% lower than did the cows

that were fed to maintain their fatness

or their body condition

into and through the breeding season.

In this particular experiment,

the cows that maintained body condition rebred very well,

94% as compared to those

that lost the body condition down to 73%.

We're in that time of the year where as we go

from the calving season into the breeding season,

we're in one of the toughest times in terms

of nutritional challenges for these cows.

The standing forage that's out in these native

and Bermuda grass pastures is very low quality,

what's left after we've gone through a winter.

So, it makes it makes it even tougher

to keep body condition on these cattle.

The point that I think I'd like to make is that we need

to try to provide a good quality hay for these cattle,

as well as the supplement, and continue feeding it

into and through the breeding season,

so that we maintain body condition

on the cows as best we possibly can.

Let's try to make sure they're not losing body condition

between calving and the breeding season,

and we'll be a lot happier next year

when we find out which cows are open

and which cows are pregnant. 

(country music)

Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again next week

on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.

 

Market Monitor

>>> Well, Bob Dylan once said,

"Don't think twice, it's all right,"

and, Kim, is this the feeling producers should have

with these declining wheat prices?

>>> I don't think so.

You look at what's going on in the wheat market,

the wheat price just continues to go down.

We've got the funds going short.

We've got lack of export demand.

I just don't know how low it's gonna go

before it hits that bottom and bounces back up.

>>> So, what's the condition with the 2019 wheat harvested

forward contracts?

>>> Well, if you look at the forward contract,

let's just use Burlington to comb a area.

You can forward contract,

right now for about $4.32 a bushel.

Compare that to $5 and a nickel the same time last year.

Now, the basis on that $4.32 is a minus 10 cents compared

to a minus 50 cents last year,

so it's 40 cents better than it was last year.

And it's based on the Ken City July contract price,

which this year is $4.32.

Last year was $5.01,

or the forward contract price is 59 cents less

than it was this time last year.

>>> So, why is the basis higher than the futures prices?

>>> Well, I think that basis reflects the local condition.

I think that the elevator won't set.

To buy that wheat at harvest,

I think there's a domestic demand for that wheat

as we get into harvest.

I think that futures price, that lower price,

reflects lack of export demand,

plus we've had the funds come in,

they continue to sell this market

and because the lack of demand,

I think the market is waiting

and is not gonna buy these contracts

until export demand picks up,

and with the things that's goin' on in the Black Sea area,

that might be a while.

>>> Well, speaking of exports,

the World Trade Organization ruled against China,

so what does that mean for Oklahoma?

>>> I think it's a null event.

If you look at China's imports of wheat,

they've only imported about a 107 million bushels,

that's an average over the last 5 years.

Of that, 85% of it's been hard red spring wheat,

15% of it's been white wheat, zero hard red winter wheats,

so since they don't,

even if they did import hard red winter wheat it'd be out

of the Seattle or the western sea ports,

and that wheat would come out of the Northern states.

>>> So, how should Oklahoma producers react

to these lower prices?

>>> Well, I think they've got to take a hard look at 'em,

they've gotta compare their allocation

to land, labor, capital, and management.

I think the one thing they can't afford

to do is use these low prices as an excuse not

to produce a quality product.

I think they've got to get that nitrogen on there,

get that protein and test rate up,

produce a quality product,

or they're gonna lose another 50 cents to a dollar.

>>> Quality's always important.

>>> You bet.

>>> Alright, thanks Kim.

Kim Anderson, grain marketing specialist here

at Oklahoma State University.

(country music)

 

Hypothermia and lambs

>>> In the 2011 Sheep Report that was done by

the United States Department of Agriculture,

it was found that 27.3% of all lambs that die

in the first three weeks of life,

those deaths are due to weather.

Studies have shown that lambs that are exposed to

extreme weather conditions are prone to getting

hypothermia and hypoglycemia.

Hypothermia occurs when the body fails to produce

enough heat or the animal is loosing too much heat

and usually it's a combination of both.

A normal rectal temperature of lamb

is going to be around 102 degrees fahrenheit

with a range of 101.5 degrees fahrenheit

to 104 degrees fahrenheit.

If we have a temperature of 99 degrees to 101 degrees,

we could consider that mild hypothermia.

Anything below 99 degrees fahrenheit

is considered severe hypothermia.

Factors contributing to lambs being hypothermic are

small lambs, lambs that have thin hair coats,

lambs that get wet and don't get dry,

or lambs that are born in very drafty conditions.

Hypothermic lambs will appear weak, gaunt and hunched up.

In severe cases, these lambs will be down,

they won't be able to stand,

usually can't lift their heads up.

If you touch these lambs, their ears will be cold,

their mouth will be cold and they'll lack a suckle reflex.

These lambs need to be warmed up.

There are a variety of ways to warm them up.

Hot boxes, where we have a box that has a heating source,

are very nice ways to warm 'em up.

These can be made or they can be purchased.

Placing hot water bottles around lambs is another good idea.

Using heating pads, I know people have even used hairdryers

to get these lambs warmed back up.

Hot water baths are really nice ways to warm animals up,

but you need to be careful when it comes to lambs

because if you wash the scent of that lamb

the ewe may not be willing to accept that lamb back

when you try to put it back with its mother.

We talk about hypothermia, but hypoglycemia usually is

the sequel to hypothermia and this is just

the low blood sugar, so when you find these lambs,

a lot of them are gonna need to be fed.

Normally, the way we're gonna do that is either gonna

tube feed them and in severe cases we may need to

give these guys some type of form of sugar, glucose or

dextrose in the form of an intraperitoneal injection or

an I.V. injection.

Both of these, tube feeding a lamb or an intraperitoneal or

I.V. injections are two techniques that you can master.

I would strongly suggest that talk with veterinarian

and get him or her to help you learn these techniques.

And keep a close eye on them again,

because you've got to make sure they nurse or

you're gonna be right back in the same situation again.

If you'd like some more information about

hypothermia and hypoglycemia, just go to sunup.okstate.edu.

(cheerful guitar music)

 

U.S. Trade Negotiations

>>> We are talking trade and tariffs now with Larry Sanders,

our Extension Economist and Ag Policy Specialist.

And Larry, this is in the news quite often,

why don't you just kinda start with an overview and

get us all up to speed?

>>> Sure, well, people know that President Trump has

set tariffs on China, to try to get them in line with

some of their missteps, perhaps, in trade.

And those trade talks have been continuing

to try to reduce the tariffs or prevent more.

The president had originally given a March 1 deadline,

but he was satisfied with the progress

so those trade talks are now ongoing.

>>> What, I think the big question for a lot of

Oklahoma producers and beyond, what's at stake really

for agriculture in the United States?

>>> Yeah, we had a record trade deficit with China for 2018,

that means we bought more from them

than they bought from us.

And a big part of that was drops in agriculture.

China is our number one market for soybeans, for feed,

for hides, for alfalfa.

It's our number two market for hay.

It's our number three market for dairy and poultry.

It's our number four market for processed foods,

beef and pork.

And it's our number five market for wheat,

depending on what you were looking at.

So, all of those are at risk of losing

market share over there.

>>> Some really important, you know, business that goes on

of course, what's at stake meantime for China?

>>> Well, depending on where you're standing,

and us in the United States, we feel that China

has been taking unfair advantage of our

intellectual property rights, our trade secrets.

They sometimes wanna know things

that we would prefer to sell to them

so when a business gets over there

they try to get those things.

And they also are manipulating their currency,

so their products are relatively cheaper

on the world market than ours are.

So we are buying more from them at this time,

and the United States doesn't like that.

And all of that is for them to have economic growth,

they want it to continue,

but we want them to do it in a fair way.

>>> Right.

What is next in all of this in your opinion?

>>> Well I think that we're probably going to see

a trade agreement eventually within the next month or two.

China is going to say that they're going to come in line.

The problem is we don't have any

very good enforcement mechanisms.

And history says China is notorious

for not honoring trade agreements, keeping their word,

and so probably down the road somewhere

we're probably gonna have to file a dispute claim

with the World Trade Organization.

>>> [Lyndall] That accountability part of the picture,

there's a lot in the news, a lot to keep up with.

What is it important to kinda keep

on our radars moving forward?

>>> Well we know that President Trump

has signed the US/Mexico/Canada trade agreement last year.

Congress has yet to approve that.

We know that informally is NAFTA 2.0,

so agriculture has benefited greatly by the original NAFTA,

and we don't wanna see us lose that opportunity.

We backed out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership,

the remaining 11 countries have moved forward without us,

and they're reducing tariffs,

and we may lose a bit of market share in the Pacific Rim

if that moves forward without us,

and it looks like it will.

We've re-initiated trade talks with Europe,

and in particular England, because of Brexit,

and there's some contention there,

because they don't wanna lower their tariffs

on our automobiles,

so we'll probably see some fireworks

down the road there as well.

>>> Well we appreciate your analysis,

and of course keep us up to speed as everything develops.

>>> Thank you.

>>> Thanks a lot, Larry.

(light country music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Hi, Wes Lee with your weekly Mesonet weather report.

Cool temperatures continued to be the main weather topic

this past week as a near record breaking cold front

moved across the state.

Statewide high temperatures have been below average now

for most of the day since Valentine's Day.

On Monday March 4th,

daily highs were a whopping 35 degrees

below the long-term average.

This weekend we should finally move back

slightly above the average high

for this time of year of about 62 degrees.

We discussed wheat, first hollow stem,

a few weeks ago on SUNUP.

If we look at the maps now,

we see a lot has changed since then.

The early varieties map shows most of the state

to be red where they are likely to be

at a 50% or more chance of first hollow stem.

The middle varieties map indicates

that about a bottom third of the state has reached red

where first hollow stem is likely occurring.

The late varieties map just shows pockets of red

in southern Oklahoma.

We recommend scouting individual fields

when the maps indicate a five percent probability

for your variety in your area.

Next up Gary is going to talk more

about the winter temperatures.

>>> Thanks, Wes, and good morning everyone.

Well, as usual we have some good news,

and we have some bad news.

And the bad news usually comes in the form of

the drought monitor map.

So let's take a look at that.

As you can see we still have those abnormally dry conditions

persisting across far western Oklahoma

up into the eastern panhandle,

and that little bit of moderate drought

down in far southwestern Oklahoma.

Now for the good news.

We see next week we do have increased odds

of above normal precipitation,

greatly increased odds in fact.

Looks like we might get a pretty decent rain storm in here.

That would be great news

for that area across western Oklahoma.

So hopefully we can cut some of that yellow color

off the map and get rid of the drought altogether.

Now we have an interesting take on the winter.

Climatological winter runs from December through February.

If we look at the air temperature maps

from the Oklahoma Mesonet for the winter months

we see the average air temperature across the state.

There's generally close to normal,

some places a little bit above,

some places little bit below,

but overall across the state

generally we had a normal winter temperature wise.

Now let's take another look from the minimum

and maximum temperatures.

So our minimum temperatures for the winter months

were above normal across the state from one to two degrees.

Some places about normal,

some places a little bit more than that one to two degrees.

And our maximum temperatures,

those were below normal,

from one to sometimes three degrees below normal.

So you average those minimum and maximum temperatures

together you end up with

a pretty much normal winter temperature wise.

So just a little bit of interesting science

there from the Mesonet maps.

Now hopefully we can get some good rains in here

this coming week and keep that drought at bay

across western Oklahoma and get everybody ready for spring.

That it for this time for this time.

We'll see you next time on the Mesonet weather report.

 

>>> That'll do it for us this week.

Remember you can find us anytime at sunup.okstate.edu

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone,

and remember Oklahoma agriculture starts at SUNUP.

(upbeat country music)

(gentle music)

 

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