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Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

Phone: (405) 744-4065
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Transcript for February 9, 2019

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Oats as forage
  • Swing your oats
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Market Monitor
  • The benefits of multiple soil samples
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Vet Scripts


(upbeat music)

>>>Hello everyone and welcome to SUNUP

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Raising cattle on wheat of course

is very popular in Oklahoma but as we all know

Mother Nature sometimes has other plans

and wheat crops don't always work out.

Today we head to Logan County

to learn about another forage option.


Oats as forage

>>> Our main focus is wheat pasture.

We try to have cattle grazing on it through the cool season

and we use it as a cool season forage.

That is our plan.

We'll take them all threw graze out

or we'll turn into a bale of hay.

We thought that we had our wheat found

and that the germ test would be good,

and it ended up not being.

So, we went with another route and that was

our quickest rout was to go to oats.

>>> Oats, you know is a really good rescue crop.

It's one of the fastest growing crops

as far as the small grains that we have available to us.

We can get a tremendous amount of growth

in a short amount of time.

>>> For us this year it was a catch up crop.

We were ... a make up crop.

Very clearly we did not do this the right way.

We didn't plant it right.

We didn't have our ground necessarily prepared.

But the oats recovered from it.

We were pushed in front of a rain

and we were afraid that we would be in a cycle

where we might be two weeks

where we wouldn't be able to get back into the field again

and then not have a chance to have that early grazing.

So, we got lucky. We had a tremendous amount of growth.

They grew a lot faster than our wheat did

and we were able to stock these acres

a lot heavier than we were our wheat acres.

>>> Oats are the most palatable of our small grains.

Cattle will, or other livestock will prefer those,

over rye and wheat and nearly everything else.

They're really high in protein.

It's very similar to wheat pasture.

You know 25 to 30% crude protein.

When it's just leaf, whenever it starts getting mature.

You know it'll get down into the lower 20s and upper teens.

The problem is, it's not winter hearty.

>>> This has been tromped pretty hard

with the weather that we've had since Christmas.

It needs some time to recover.

We've had some freeze damage from it.

That we wouldn't have had

if we would have had wheat pasture.

But this time, and I'm not gonna say

it's gonna be every time.

But this time the oats,

we were able to stock considerably heavier.

We stocked about 700lbs beef to the acre.

We're not through the growing season yet.

Clearly, the calves are catching the oats right now.

If we can get to March then

we've essentially doubled our stocking rate.

Been looking at getting anywhere from

2.4 to 2.8lbs gains on the cattle.

We've shipped some a week or so ago.

We can't complain with how the production has been.

>>> You know, when they were able to get cattle out

they were more than double what we would see

in a lot of wheat pasture situations.

You know, cattle gaining 2. you know 4 or 2.5

to 3 lbs a day is really outstanding for

that amount of livestock to have on the field.

>>> My dad told me a long time ago.

He said, 'Dust wheat in, mud oats in'.

We've had a pretty muddy year. So it worked.


Swing your oats

>>> We're with our cropping systems specialist, Josh Lofton,

and Josh we just heard for our producer

who's been grazing his cattle on oats.

How popular is that in the state.

>>> Oats are actually a really popular option.

A lot of folks like oats do to the

flexibility in the system that it provides.

If a grower goes in an plants their wheat

and it fails out in the fall,

or maybe they didn't get a chance

to plant their wheat in the fall.

Oats provide us a really good option of going in

in the spring and putting in a forage crop

that those cattle can go in

the back half of the spring and actually get

pretty decent forage production.

Most of the time in a failed wheat crop

we're gonna goin into a no till situation.

Compared to if you did get wheat in the fall

we might be into more of a tilled situation.

When we look at a lot of our planting practices

they are very similar to wheat.

And some of our things like seeding rate

and seeding depth are going to depend

on which one of those two you are in.

>>> In regards to the quality of forage.

Is it better than wheat?

Or is wheat better?

How does ... what do you think?

>>> It's really 6 and 1, you know their really gonna like it.

You know, it's in a period to where

there's not a lot of green stuff growing.

So getting a good oat crop out

and established is pretty good.

It's definitely better than a failed wheat crop.

The benefit that the oats provide,

is that if growers do end up planting it in the spring,

it can get that very rapid forage production

that those cattle can use rather quickly

during that critical time coming out of the winter.

>>> Are oats specifically for cattle or do they use them

for other animals?

>>> Well, that's very interesting because we have

quite a few growers in the state

that aren't necessarily grazing their oats,

but they're taking them to seed, you know.

We're really big in the horse industry here

in the state of Oklahoma, you know.

We have oats being supplied to the horse industry.

Also the cover crop industry really loves oats,

and I do believe we have several growers

in the state that are growing oats for seed supplies

for the cover crop industry,

to take to, back into Oklahoma

or various other states in the U.S.

>>> Let's switch gears a little bit and move

to the winter crops.

How are wheat and canola coming along?

>>> Actually, they're looking pretty good.

We're looking real nice, it's funny

to say this time last year we were asking

for more and more rain,

now I think a lot of our growers are glad

to see a little bit of drying temperatures.

We had quite a few fields that were heavily inundated

with water, and so as some of those are starting

to dry up we're starting to see some

of that wheat and canola come through a little bit more.

We will probably be in that situation coming out

of these next couple weeks, where the nitrogen demand

is fairly high, and so if you do have your in-ridge strips,

now is the time to start looking into them.

>>> So you, but you also have some information

about the All-Crops Conference.

Talk a little bit about that.

>>> We're gonna be about 10 days away

from our All-Crops Conference.

And I know we've been harping on this a lot this year,

but this is something new that we're doing.

And we're calling it kind of that one stop shop

that anybody involved in Oklahoma production agriculture

can come and learn something that they want to hear.

We have really really good topics,

really really hot topics,

and very broad information available.

You know, so if you wanted to know what's happening

with the Farm Bill and the implementation of that,

we have Dr. Amy Hagerman that's gonna be talking

about that, we also got a special guest, Jimmy Emmons,

gonna come talk about conservation Ag

in his production system and how it's improved that greatly.

As well as we have basically all the commodities

that we grow in the state are going to be represented

in topics and discussion there at the Crops Conference.

>>> All right, thanks Josh.

>>> Thank you.

>>> If you would like some more information about oats,

and the All-Crops Conference,

go to our website,

(upbeat music)


Cow-Calf Corner

>>> As the spring calving season is getting underway

here across the southern plains,

it's time to remind producers

that the nutritional needs of beef cows

actually are undergoing quite a sizeable change.

As we go from that dry pregnant cow,

to now a lactating cow.

Let's use an example of a 1200 pound cow before she calves,

and when we look at her nutrient needs,

we need every day for her to consume about 1.9 pounds

of protein, and something close to 13 pounds

of what we call TDN,

that's the energy component of the feed.

When she's, after she calves and starts to lactate,

those particular numbers change rather dramatically.

For protein it goes up about 52%, up to 2.9 pounds

of protein every day, and in case of energy,

it goes up about 30%, from that, roughly that 13 pounds

that we talked about, up to near 17 pounds

on an every day basis.

Now, a lactating cow will consume more voluntarily

than she did as a dry pregnant cow.

But that increase in terms of voluntary intake

is only a increase of about 20%.

So, as we think about those numbers,

you've got only a 20% increase in intake, but the needs

for protein have jumped by 52%

and energy is increased by 30%.

That means to me that the quality,

not only the quantity but the quality

of her diet needs to increase as well.

Let's use that same example, that 1200 pound cow.

If she's been consuming, say,

just ordinary average quality grass hay,

and some 30% crude protein supplement,

then we would need to increase her daily intake

of that supplement about three and a third pounds every day

to meet those protein needs.

And that three and a third pounds

of increased protein supplement would go a long way

to meeting the increased needs that she has for energy.

So by doing that then, we would be getting that cow

the correct amount of nutrients that she needs

on an every day basis to maintain her body condition,

produce milk, and go ahead and recycle and rebreed

on time for next year's calf crop.

So as we go through this calving season,

let's keep in mind the nutrient requirements

of these beef cows do change as they go

from a dry, pregnant cow to a lactating cow.

I'd like to see that change begin gradually

in the last part of gestation

so it don't have to just make the entire change overnight.

By the way, I do think it's important

that we understand the differences between

the needs of that dry cow and the lactating cow.

And if you'd like to learn more

about nutrient needs of beef cows, go to the SUNUP website.

There we'll have, under the show links,

a link to an excellent extension circular

done here at Oklahoma State,

and it's just nutrient requirements for beef cattle.

Give you a lot of information about what cattle

and different classifications will need throughout the year.

Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again

next week on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.


Market Monitor

>>> There really hasn't been much movement

in the price of wheat this year, Kim, this calendar year.

How does that compare to a year ago at this time?

>>> Well let's go all the way back to September of 2018.

Wheat prices were around $5.08.

They had peaked at $5.75 in early June,

and then they went down.

You come into the February time period,

wheat prices, the cash wheat price, was $4.00

with a 64 cent under basis, or a minus 64 basis.

You could forward contract wheat for harvest to delivery

at $4.25 or 70 cent under basis.

You look at right now, our wheat prices

are around $4.80, $4 and 85 cents.

You can forward contract for $4.80.

You got that basis, so last February minus 64,

now it's a minus 14 cents.

So our forward contract basis now 35 cents under.

Last year it was 70 cents under.

So we're about 70 cent higher prices.

>>> That 70 cents, what went in to make that market do that?

>>> Well if you, you look at what's going on the market

this time last year, we had an excess of wheat.

Now we have an excess of wheat right now,

but last year's wheat was very poor milling quality,

low protein, hard to find test weight.

The market needed that '18 crop when we got into harvest.

And when we got there, we had good test weight,

better than a 60 pound test weight.

We had over twelve-and-a-half percent

protein on the average.

It was good wheat, the market needed it,

and it drove that price up to $5.75 for a few days

and then back down to that $5 rate.

So they needed that quality wheat,

that's why the prices are higher.

>>> Will we see that 70 cent bump

between now and harvest do you think?

>>> Well it's gonna depend on a lot of things.

And a big part of that is export.

Right now we have adequate supply of milling quality wheat.

Now, they're predicting that we're gonna use

more wheat this year than we produced last year,

and if that's the case, it will be short of protein,

they'll need that protein, and they'll bid that price up.

And if we harvest a better than twelve-and-a-half percent

protein wheat with better than 60 pound test weight,

with good exports this spring,

we could see that 70 cent price increase.

>>> Now there's a lot of ifs in there.

Say we don't make those ifs.

Say we don't have that protein that they need.

Will we see any movement in the price?

>>> Well I think we'll still see prices

about the current levels

because the market's gonna need this wheat

that we're harvesting even though it may not be the protein

and the test weight they want.

However, that will go away quickly,

and if we don't have protein and test weight,

let's say our protein's below 12% on average

our test weight's around 58, 59 something like that,

we could lose that 70 cents.

>>> Okay, thank you much, Kim Anderson.

Like the hat by the way.

>>> Thank ya.

>>> Grain marketing specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.


The benefits of multiple soil samples

>>> Taking soil samples and running soil test analysis

is one of the easiest things you can do as a producer

or homeowner to make sure your plants are healthy.

Taking the right sample, though, is really important.

Make sure that you do the soil sampling process correctly.

Now one of the things that we always recommend

when you take a soil sample is take multiple cores.

So when we say a core, that is a smaller piece of soil,

or smaller unit of soil, that we take to get a composite.

Our recommendation at Oklahoma State University

is 15 to 20 cores.

Now that composite is the one sample you submit

to the soil testing lab

to get your recommendations for pH, NPK.

Lot of people question why 15 or 20.

That's a lot of samples, and it takes a lot of time.

And that's true.

When you take that many samples,

it takes a significant amount of time

to go out there and make sure you get a good sample

to get a good composite.

15 or 20 cores is what we need

to get a good composite sample.

And it really comes back to the statistics.

To discuss some of that, if we look

at the number of cores we have per sample.

So we have number of cores per sample, per composite sample.

If we start off here and say this is one core

and this is 30 cores, and we have our line in here,

15, and get it up in here and we have this number

This side is error.

So if we look,

the higher we get on this bar.

The further closer to the top we have,

the more error we have than analysis.

We draw this out, and this is really indicative

of most populations, people, animals, soil samples.

If we look at our error and graph it,

it looks something about like this.

Where it's coming down here,

and if we only have one or two samples

representing the population.

So that's just two cores representing the entire field,

we've got two little soil samples

representing the entire field,

we have a lot of error.

That means that even though the field might have an average

PH of six, because of our error this sample could come back

anywhere between a four and eight.

Just because we take two.

The more samples you have, the more you go down this line,

the more you reduce that error,

and make sure that the sample you're actually sending in

better represents the whole.

It's like taking population, think you have 100 people

randomly collected from the street, and use two of 'em

to say my group averages this, what's the likelihood

of choosing two people out of 100

is going to best represent the group as a whole?

And it's really getting to that 15-20 sub-samples

or 15-20 samples of a population does a great job

of describing the population as a whole.

Does it do it perfect?

No, but it does an overall good.

So, that's why as a nutrient management specialist,

and Dr. Zong and the soil testing lab,

we really push let's make sure we get a good number

of cores in that composite.

So we can best describe the area that we're sampling.

For more information check out the SUNUP website


(upbeat music)


Mesonet Weather

>>> Welcome, Wes Lee, with the weekly Mesonet weather report.

Weather is the driving factor for most decisions made

on the farm, for example, in dual purpose wheat

the decision to remove cattle early enough

so that the grain crop is not severely damaged

is weather related.

Research has shown this is best done

at what is referred to as first hollow stem.

First hollow stem is when the seed head moves up

from the crown and leaves below it

about half an inch of hollow stem.

If cattle are not removed then,

they stand a chance of damaging the head as they graze.

Mesonet has a tool to help determine when first hollow stem

is likely to occur.

It is based on accumulated soil heat units since December 22

Wheat varieties are divided up

into early, middle, or late maturing.

Looking at this map for the early varieties shows that

first hollow stem is likely occurring

in the southern half of the state.

Even further north at Kingfisher, first hollow stem

is likely to begin within the next week on early varieties.

For more information visit our website at

Next up Gary will be discussing

the increasingly dry conditions in the south-west.

>>> Thanks Wes, and good morning everyone.

As Wes was discussing the first hollow stem

it makes us get a little bit antsy about the drought monitor

and where we're at for this time of year,

as we start to head into spring.

Let's get right to the new drought monitor map

and see what we have.

Most of the map still looks great for Oklahoma,

we just have that lingering bit of abnormally dry

conditions down in the far south-western part of the state.

We are starting to get worried

about the far western panhandle,

I'll show you that in a minute.

But so far we're looking pretty good for mid/early February.

As we look at the consecutive days

with less than a quarter inch of rainfall map

from the Oklahoma Mesonet,

this is where we can see those problem areas.

Now the lighter oranges are problems.

We do need moisture in those areas.

But it's the darker orange areas in the far south-west

and also out in the panhandle

that we're really concerned about.

It's been more than 40 days in those areas

without a good rainfall.

So, those are spots to keep an eye on.

Now if we look over the last 60 days,

on the percentage of normal rainfall map from the Mesonet,

again that area down in the far south-west

really shows up quite well as a problem area,

and a little bit of dryness up in the north-west,

and also in the far western panhandle,

but by and large, most of the state over the last 60 days

is doing pretty well, but before we panic

about our little bit of yellow

down in the far south-western corner of the state,

and that area does need rainfall,

we have to compare what we had last year at this time.

So as we see on last week's map,

it has increased a little bit this week,

but not even a full percentage point

of abnormally dry conditions,

and then you look at a year ago,

January 23, 2018, map, we had nearly 100% of the state

covered in at least moderate drought,

and a lot of that was the severe to extreme route.

Especially across the western portions of the state

where that winter wheat crop is so important.

Well, that's it for this time.

We'll see you next time on the Mesonet Weather Report.


Wild Fire

>>> We are quickly turning the corner

toward wild fire season in Oklahoma,

and this week we want to revisit a portion

of an entire show we did on the topic last year.

Today's subject is prevention.

>>> [Older Man] Wildfire is a fire that's out of control.

Something that we didn't anticipate,

it's not something we wanted.

And, it's kind of escaped any control and is problematic.

With Oklahoma's weather and how variable it is,

we see the extremes.

We see fires that are on the side of a road

that may be stomped out by one person

or we can go to some of the larger wildfires

we've had over the last few years

that take multiple resources,

multiple operational periods to control.

So, the first step to preparedness

is don't wait until the event is ongoing,

or when they smell smoke in the air.

From a landowner's standpoint,

what we really need to focus on

is taking actions well ahead of that event.

>>> [Reporter] Drew Daily is a Fire Staff Forester

with the Forestry Service.

And works with local jurisdictions

in the event of a wildfire.

He says just doing regular upkeep on your property

can make a huge difference.

>>> Brush and low hanging limbs are removed,

that the firewood not stacked up next to a house.

If you have decks or window wells that leaves

and other debris has not blown up in there,

because very often it's not the direct contact

with a flaming front that results in a structural loss

or something of that nature.

It's firebrands or embers that are lofted

into the column that settle out into those areas

and then they'll initiate a home ignition if you will.

>>> [Reporter] While upkeep on your property is essential,

producers need to have a plan for their animals as well.

>>> Well I think in regards to animals, preparing for the

disaster before it comes is the best thing that you can do.

And, there's a lot of resources that you can find

through different organizations that will

give you some ideals of what you need to be ready for,

things that you need to have on hand.

Having in your truck, the ability to cut a fence

in an emergency or those types of things is also important.

And, it's part of the preparation again.

>>> [Reporter] There are also preparational steps

landowners can take to help those

who are helping save their properties.

>>> [Drew] One thing that gets overlooked very often

is ingress and egress.

In other words, how can a firetruck,

which sometimes can be very large,

can they make it into your driveway?

And basically, we're looking at something that's,

we want 12-foot-wide by 13 or 14-feet-high

so that we can make ingress and egress

out of your access to your home into your other buildings.

Then also for in the agricultural community,

make sure that you have very visible gates.

And, that way we can try to avoid cutting fences,

whether we need to make access

or we're trying to let cattle out

so that they can be shuffled

out of the way of a fast moving fire.

>>> A lot of times we think about oh, the fire department

will come protect my home.

Well, you get in those big situations

a lot of times there's not enough people and resources

to go around to protect every home and to do that.

So your home needs to stand alone.

It needs to be able to defend itself.

>>> [Drew] The only way that we can really be prepared

is to run through scenarios in your head.

Look at lessons learned.

Look at other fires that have happened in the state.

What did the homeowners there go through

and what did it look like?

We try to have our landowners and homeowners

to think about what they will do in an emergency.

When the emergency occurs, then it becomes second nature.

(light upbeat music)


Vet Scripts

>>> The most important ectoparasite in the United States

in poultry is the northern foul mite.

The northern fowl mite becomes a problem in winter.

Usually we start to see it in December through March.

It's about one millimeter in length.

It has long legs, an oval body.

Depending on whether it has just fed or not

the color varies from white, to gray, to black.

The lifecycle of this mite takes from five to 12 days.

That's from an egg all the way to the adult.

It spends its entire life on one host,

unless it gets knocked off or something like that.

And it can survive for a period

of three to four weeks off the host.

Clinical signs that we typically see

are going to be some scabby areas on the skin,

maybe some crusty dried blood, that type of lesion.

You're going to usually see it around the vent.

If you'll part the feathers in that area

and look at the skin.

That's where we'll usually find this mite.

You may actually be able to see it

crawling around or it may actually

crawl on your own hands and bite you.

The mite is transmitted from bird to bird.

It's in the environment,

because it's common in wild birds.

It can be found on rats.

So, it's not like if you have backyard chickens

that your chickens are not

going to be exposed to this mite.

There are several treatments that are approved.

I would contact a veterinarian

and talk with them about what's best for you.

If you're into organic production,

the University of California Entomology Department there

has just done a study a few years ago

about the use of sulfur and bags.

They place the sulfur in bags,

tie it in pens and allow these chickens

to bump up against that bag and it releases that sulfur

onto their body and it has good efficacy,

it controls the mites real well.

If you'd like some more information

about the northern fowl mite and chickens,

just go to


>>> That'll do it for us this week.

Remember, you can find us anytime at,

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone.

And remember, Oklahoma agriculture starts at sunup.

(light upbeat music)


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