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Transcript for February 2, 2019

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Alfalfa management
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Equine health checkup
  • Preparing horses for spring
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Livestock Marketing
  • Food Whys
  • Market Monitor



(upbeat music)

Alfalfa management

>>> Hello everyone and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

We begin today thinking about pastures

and ways to plan now to ensure

that you're set up for a successful

and productive spring and summer.

Here's our extension forage systems specialist,

Alex Rocateli.

>>> Well, we got a good start in rainfall this year.

We already got about four inches and 1/4

of total precipitation.

That's about double what we used to get,

based on our 30 years average,

and that's pretty good for pastures,

especially for alfalfa pastures that might start

to catch up in growth to regrow in a month from now.

So, it doesn't mean that the pasture, as you can see here,

the alfalfa is still not growing pretty well,

it's still kind of cold.

That doesn't mean that we need

to wait to start to do any management.

We need to be proactive.

Right now, soil sampling and analysis will be perfect.

Keep in mind that alfalfa is a very high demand plant

in phosphorus and potassium.

Talking about potassium,

alfalfa tend to take up more potassium than it needs.

That's what we fancy say "luxury consumption".

And that has a problem because alfalfa

that has high concentrations of potassium

can cause milk fever in lactating cows.

So that's why we need to apply properly.

Now what's the best time to fertilize alfalfa fields?

I would say, ideally, for phosphorus, would be mid-February,

late February, before the plants resume growth.

However, for potassium, would be after the first cut.

Well, but there is a problem here,

we need to do two applications and that might be expensive,

because you have labor costs, gas.

Therefore, we can combine both in one application,

and apply late February in just one application.

When talk about weed control, in my opinion,

the best method is fertilization.

If you proper fertilize our alfalfa, we are gonna have

a plant that can really compete against the weed.

However, if you have a proper fertilization

and you still have some weeds in your pastures,

better that you think about control.

Before thinking about any chemical control,

better that you consider three things.

First, the incidence of weeds in your pasture,

how much weed do you have in your pasture?

Let's say, if you have an incidence of five or 10% of weeds,

that might be a low incidence,

and if you spend money with herbicides,

that may not return in more forage quality and yield.

The second thing is the type of weeds

that you might have in your alfalfa stand.

If you have weeds such as dandelions and pigweeds,

believe it or not, but they are not that bad.

They won't affect the forage quality of your alfalfa.

Finally, stand density is very important.

Keep in mind that alfalfa is not a plant

that compensates in the field gaps pretty well.

Therefore, if you have a very thin stand,

and you apply a herbicide,

you might be controlling those weeds,

but the alfalfa may not fill the gaps

and the weeds will return later.

Based on what we have discussed so far,

you realize that it's a good option to go

and do a weed control applying herbicide.

Keep in mind that you need to apply a herbicide

that is labeled for alfalfa, read the instructions,

have a proper application in the correct time,

in the correct dose

and always check for grazing and hay restrictions.


Mesonet Weather

>>> Hi, Wes Lee with your weekly Mesonet weather report.

A cold polar vortex hit the US this week,

bringing with it some of the coldest temperatures

the country has seen in a long time.

Temperatures Wednesday in the Northern Plains

were some of the coldest spots on the Earth

as the front moves South and East.

Fortunately, Oklahoma only got a glancing blow

of these extreme conditions. The lows on January the 30th

had many of the northern tariff counties reaching down

into the low teens and even single digits.

Eva rates the lowest at eight degrees,

but Boise City and Newkirk were close behind at nine.

January has had sort of a split personality

when it comes to temperatures.

Looking at this chart, we see the long-term average

air temperature for January in the blue shaded area.

The red line is the observed 2019 average temperatures.

We see that the first half of the month

was much warmer than normal, however the second half

fell way below what was expected.

There is good news for those of your who are ready

for a warm up. Forecasted temperatures

for Sunday, February the 2nd, are expected

to climb all the way up into the 70s.

And the following week is also projected

to be warmer than normal. Now, here's Gary,

with information on some drying areas of the state.

>>> Thanks Wes, and good morning everyone.

Well, it was fun while it lasted.

We went a few weeks there without any color

on our drought monitor map and, unfortunately,

we have a little bit of dow yellow starting

to creep back in. Let's get right

to that drought monitor map and see what we have.

As you can see, down in far south-west Oklahoma,

in Harmon County generally, little bit of yellow there.

That's that abnormally try conditions category

on the drought monitor. That signifies areas going

into drought this time. Sometimes this area's going

out of drought. This time it's an area coming into drought

or possibly with drought, as we go into the future

a little bit dry there. If we go to

our Mesonet consecutive days with less than a quarter inch

of rainfall map, we can see that area down

in south-west Oklahoma has gone more than a month

without significant rainfall. Now the rest of the state,

from seven up to three weeks of rain, or without rain,

and then out in the panhandle they're also getting

a little bit dry out in eastern Texas County

and also Western Cimarron County,

more than a month there as well.

So, we do have parts of the state

that are starting to dry out,

and we are getting concerned about those areas.

So, how have we done with January?

We are in weather than normal, for the most part.

If we look at the observed rainfall

from the Mesonet for January we see less than an inch

across west Oklahoma. It's not that concerning too much,

because it's a dry month anyway, and over into east Oklahoma

the rainfall amounts increase dramatically,

up to more than five inches up in north-eastern Oklahoma.

So, we are getting a little bit dry down

in south-west Oklahoma, and something we'll have

to watch as we go into the future

and we start to warm up as we go into spring.

Hopefully we can get some rainfall out there

head off any drought conditions,

but we'll keep an eye on it. 

That's it for this time. We'll see you next time

on the Mesonet weather report.


Equine health checkup

>>> Talking horses now and some recommendations

to keep in mind this time of year.

SUNUP's Curtis Hare caught up with

our extension veterinarian, Dr. Barry Whitworth.

>>> We're with our extension veterinarian, Barry Whitworth,

and, Barry, we're still in Winter, but Spring's approaching

and for those horse owners out there,

what are some things they need

to think about as it starts to warm up?

>>> Well probably the first thing that I would suggest,

is they probably need to take their horse,

have it examined by a veterinarian,

and we need to take a look at getting

those vaccinations in those animals.

Things like Eastern and Western Encephalitis, Tetanus,

and Rabies shot. And then depending on what you're gonna do

with that horse, maybe if you're going to be

doing some traveling, co-mingling with other horses,

you might want to look at some of the other vaccines

like Influenza, or Rhinopneumonitis,

or West Nile Virus would be the things

that I would suggest that those owners take a look at.

>>> What about when it comes to parasites?

What are some of the parasites

that infect horses this time of year?

>>> Well, horses can get gastrointestinal worms

or they can get tapeworms. You know,

probably the best thing that we can do there

is, once again, have your veterinarian maybe do a fecal.

We'll see maybe what the worm burden is, and then maybe

we might need to do a de-worming of that animal.

>>> When it comes to the parasites or just some of

the other types of illnesses, are there some common signs

that horse owners can look out for?

>>> Sure. Anytime we have an animal we always look

for things like appetite. Are they eating?

Or are they not eating? If we were to go

and mingle, you know, go to a rodeo event

or some other type of event where we're gonna have been

with a lot of horses. Things we'd want to do,

we'd bring that horse home, you wanna make sure you

isolate that from that rest, and then you really want

to pay attention to, do we see any nasal discharge,

ocular discharges, do we see increased respiration rates?

We might want to check their temperatures

to make sure it's not elevated,

but these would just we basic things that you might want

to keep an eye on from after you've had this horse

at some type of event or something.

Because you don't want them to have contact

with any of the horses on your place,

and when I mean isolate, we don't want any

nose-to-nose contact, so they need to be separated.

And you wanna make sure, like,

you don't wanna feed that animal, water that animal

till you've done all the rest of the animals.

I'm gonna treat that one the last one,

and as I said, watch for those signs that

this animal is getting sick.

Any type of nasal discharge, ocular discharge,

appetite suppression, and again, if you wanna take the time

to check the temperature.

If he gets an elevation in temperature, that's a sign

that this animal's got some type of infection going on

and we need to contact our veterinarian.

>>> Alrighty thanks, Barry.

And for more on horses getting ready for the spring,

here's our Extension Equine Specialist, Kris Hiney.


Preparing horses for spring

>>> So if your horse has had a little bit of time off,

I always recommend that you check a little bit

of basic health in your horse first.

So what shape are his feet in?

Does the farrier need to be revisiting him

before you start riding again?

You know, if their feet have gotten long,

they need to be trimmed, because it really does affect

how the horse moves, the length of their feet.

Also how tight, if they are shod, are those shoes

still tight on that horses feet, or again,

have they kind of grown out?

Because everybody tends to forget about,

if their horses feet are too long, it's really like

you having the wrong size of shoes on

and trying to get ready for an event.

So we really need to think about their feet

sorta the same way.

So a lot of it is, you need to decide what type of activity

you're getting your horse fit for.

Does he need to do high speed activities or

endurance type activity?

And also plan back from when is that event

that you're getting your horse ready for,

if that's what your goal is, because we need to

give the horse enough time to develop fitness

before the actual competition.

So one of the things that I typically talk about

when it comes to fitness with horses is try to equate it

with, you know people making that New Year's resolution

of "I'm gonna go to the gym", right?

And then you go to the gym and what happens when

you don't ease into it or you over do it?

You're sore, right?

Because you've done too much and

we don't tend to think about that with the horses much,

that oh they might be sore.

And so sometimes when they're, you know, maybe a little

cranky or irritable or not performing like you want,

it may actually be muscle soreness and we just always kinda

put it on he's being bad.

Check his body condition score, if that

has changed over the winter.

Because one of the things that can affect is your tack fit

and you certainly don't wanna make your horse's back sore

from any rub or sores as you get started.

It's always a good chance, you know, and especially at

the beginning of the season to do that baseline assessment.

What does my horse look like right now?

Sometimes I advocate taking pictures,

because if the horse is being exercised you should see

like a better topline, better muscle development,

so it almost gives you a way to check back and look to say

"oh yeah, my fitness program is actually

helping my horse out" or to take a picture and go

"oh, he's lost a lot of condition, so maybe I need to

think about that when I'm getting my horse fit again."

Our optimal body condition score for most performance events

that horses are gonna do are that five, five and a half.

Sometimes, our endurance horses will be a little leaner

just because we want them to carry weight for a longer

period of time, as well as dissipate heat.

But that five, five and a half is kind of key.

Again, if your horse is over that, they're carrying

extra weight and that can be hard on their joints.

You know, with you it's the same thing,

if you're carrying around extra weight,

it's not gonna be as easy to exercise,

so we want them as lean as possible but still having the

amount of muscle that they need and the amount of fat

and energy stores to do their event.

As horses change weight, again it changes their shape,

so to speak, and that can change how your saddle fits.

So that's something that's pretty important

to pay attention to.

Well we've started a monthly webinar series

as a way to reach out to people

while they're still in their home.

So essentially, you can access those in two different ways,

through Zoom, so I send out a link through Zoom.

The advantage of Zoom is you can actually interact

and ask questions with whoever is hosting the webinar.

Our next webinar in our series is February sixth,

that's a Wednesday and it'll be live at 6 PM.

Dr. Justin Talley is going to talk about internal parasites

and doing fecal egg counts to decide if you should

de-worm the horse or not.

And then in March, it will be Dr. Candace Lyman,

from the vet school, and we're gonna talk about

breeding soundness exams in mares.

(bright upbeat music)


Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Last week on the Cow-Calf Corner, we visited with you

about the long term effects of a baby calf

getting that passive immunity early in life.

Today we wanna spend a little more time discussing

the importance of that happening

within the first few hours of life.

You need to understand that a baby calf is born with

an immune system but it's just not producing any antibodies

to give him some disease protection to those pathogens

that he might become exposed to.

The only disease protection he's going to get

is that he gets from his mother's first milk

or colostrum or perhaps from a colostrum replacer

that you have to give that baby calf

in the case of one that doesn't nurse in time.

The reason the timing is so very, very important

is because the lining of the intestine

of that baby calf has some cells on it

call them sordid cells

they absorb those very, very large proteins,

the immunoglobulins or the antibodies

that are coming from the colostrum.

Those cells sluff off rather quickly

after the calf is born.

In fact, if you look at this particular graphic

you can get an idea that by the time

a calf is six hours of age

his ability to absorb those large antibodies

is down to only about 67%,

and by the time the calf is full day old,

quite frankly it's virtually negligible

the percentage of those large antibodies

that he can absorb.

You see as that calf goes through those first few hours

of life and he's losing those cells from his gut,

this all occurs naturally, then his ability to absorb

the antibodies is also going down.

You also want to remember that the first things

that he ingests will also increase the loss

of those absorbing cells.

For instance, if we decided to give that baby calf

some whole milk as the first thing

he ever gets to drink or eat,

that will increase the loss of those cells.

And therefore decrease his ability to absorb the antibodies.

That's why it's so important that the first meal

that baby calf receives is colostrum

or is one of the colostrum replacers

that has those antibodies in it.

that gives him the ability to get that into

his bloodstream and get some passive immunity.

Then after that, we want to come back with a second dose

about 12 hours later if we're needing to hand feed the calf,

so that we get as much of those antibodies into him

in the first two feedings as possible.

I hope this helps you understand a little more of why we say

that first six hours is so important for that baby calf

to get the colostrum and those antibodies

that he needs to get some disease protection,

that'll help him not only fend off

something like calf diarrhea in the first few weeks of life

but also then appears to be helpful to him

in terms of fending off diseases all the way

through his productive lifetime.

Hey, we look forward to visiting again with you next week

on SUNUP's Cow-Calf Corner.


Livestock Marketing

>>> We're here now with Derrell Peel our extension livestock

marketing specialist, and Derrell let's kind of start off

with this arctic blasts that everybody is talking about

the past few days, and how that might be impacting

cattle and cattle markets.

>>> You know it's a large area covered by this

and it will have some impact,

obviously it creates a lot of management headaches

for cattle in all situations

whether it's cow calf or stocker or in the feed lot,

so individual producers will certainly be dealing with this.

What we're watching, of course, is whether

that translates into market impacts.

And so, you know with these kind of conditions

deep snow, in some cases, muddy conditions,

or at least it was mud before it froze,

and so that affects cattle performance,

that can translate into lighter carcass weights

and disruptions in the movement of cattle to market,

and so you know we'll be watching to see

how much impact that has on the supply side of the industry.

>>> [Lyndall] Do you anticipate any impact

on demand as a result?

>>> It can impact demand!

You know when we have a situation, obviously this covers

a lot of major population areas,

so when you disrupt travel for people,

and just the cold temperatures and the snowy conditions

folks hunker down, they still eat,

but they don't eat the same way they would normally.

So it can disrupt restaurant traffic,

so we can see some demand impacts.

And that makes it really hard to sort of balance

the supply disruptions versus the demand

to figure out what sort of what the net impact is,

it's something we'll have to watch.

>>> [Lyndall] A myriad of things happening,

how long do you anticipate these impacts to last?

>>> Well you know, in some cases,

when we have these disruptions,

if they're big enough and sort of prolonged enough

in terms of the event, then the tail of that

can last several weeks.

So, again it's something we'll have to watch

going forward we may, and of course it's winter time,

we got some winter weather ahead of us,

so if we stack this against some other winter weather

going forward we could see significant impacts

for several weeks on out into almost into the springtime,

depending on the situation.

>>> [Lyndall] Let's talk about data now,

and the government re-opening and what that means

in terms of some of the other analysis

that you and colleagues do.

>>> Well you know, we do have the government back open

so we're trying to get back on track.

We're still trying to figure out exactly

how we will resume data.

Some data will probably get skipped

and there's questions about exactly

how that data will be released.

And so it plays into our previous discussion

in terms of trying to track these winter weather impacts.

You know we finished up January now,

we're really still trying to get a beat on sort of

where the New Year's markets are.

And we didn't have that data for a while,

so the data issues will persist

for a little while,

but hopefully we're back on track now

so that we can begin to be able

to see these things on a more timely basis.

>>> Let's hope.

Okay, Darrell Peel, thanks a lot!

We'll see you again soon.

(upbeat music)


Food Whys

>>> Occasionally people will say

that the FDA allows bugs in our food.

It's something they hear on Facebook,

Twitter, somewhere on the internet.

And, it's a little bit more complicated than that.

What these stories are referring to

are food defect action levels

that the FDA has established for different kinds of food.

In other words, these are maximum levels

of natural or unavoidable defects

in human foods that present no health hazards.

Foods that exceed these levels are subject

to action by the FDA.

Something else that's important to remember

is that if a food is actually harmful to a consumer,

the FDA is going to act

whether or not that food exceeds any sort

of food defect action level.

It's also important to keep in mind

these levels aren't for things that are kind of shocking,

insect parts or rodent hair,

but they're also for things like sticks,

stones, stems, soil,

just to name a few other defects.

So, that's a little bit of the reasoning

behind why the FDA has set these food defect action levels.

It's also important to remember

that many food companies have their own quality standards

that are much more strict,

and if you're still grossed out

something important to remember is

that before there was ever an FDA

people were still eating food

and everything that came along with it.

If you want more information,



(upbeat music)


Market Monitor

>>> So many times on the show we talk

about the Black Sea region,

and that's really Russia,

Kazakhstan, and the Ukraine,

but Kim they've increased their exports

over the past few years,

but by how much?

>>> Well, let's set a foundation with the world.

You go back to the market in year 2000 and 2001,

world's wheat exports were 4.17 billion bushels.

This year they're projected to be 6.66 billion bushels,

or about a 2.5 billion bushel increase.

Now, if you'll look over that same time period,

Russia, the Ukraine, and Kazakhstan increased their exports

by 2.2 billion bushels or 88 percent of that.

Looking down Russia, in 2000,

their exports were 19 million bushels,

this year they're projected to be 1.34 billion bushels.

If you look at the Ukraine,

their exports in 2000 were 72 million,

606 million bushels this year.

Kazakhstan not as big an increase,

but from 239 million bushels to 312.

So if you look at the wheat,

the increase in wheat exports since 2000,

88 percent of that is out of the Black Sea region.

>>> How did they really corner that market?

>>> Well, if you'll look at it,

it's they improved the infrastructure.

They allowed outside investments,

they came in, they improved their production practices

with better technology,

better availability of fertilizers and seed,

and especially better equipment.

They spent billions of dollars

in rebuilding the road system,

the transportation system of trucking and rail,

the storage system for storing that wheat,

and then in some cases they've tripled

their capacity at exports and overall areas

increased the efficiency of exports.

>>> How much of, I don't know,

of ocean advantage, I guess,

is there for the Black Sea countries?

>>> Well let's just look at going into Egypt,

which used to be the United States'

number one importer of wheat,

and Egypt imports seven percent of the world's wheat.

It costs Russia about 41 cents ocean freight

for the Black Sea into Egypt,

it costs us about 82.

The United States, Canada, Argentina

about 82 cents going into that.

So what they've got,

Russia's got a transportation advantage

into the number one region,

that's the North African

from Egypt into Morocco.

That's 16 percent of the world's wheat imports right there.

They've got a transportation advantage

into the Middle East, which is another 15 percent.

In other words, they've got a transportation,

a significant transportation advantage

of going into 31 percent of the world's wheat market.

>>> So what happened to all the wheat

from all the other countries that are exporting?

>>> Well, if you'll look at from 2001 to current,

Argentina's percentage of the hard wheat exports

in the world went from 15 percent down to 11,

Australia from 24 to eight, Canada from 26 to 19,

and the United States 23 down to 13 percent.

Those countries, the major countries here,

Argentina, Australia, Canada, and the United States,

percent of the world's hard wheat exports

went from 88 percent down to 51 percent.

We saw Russia's go from 12 to 40,

or not Russia's but the Black Sea area,

Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan,

go from 12 percent to 49 percent

of the world's hard wheat exports.

Canada has essentially, either out of Thunder Bay

or out of Vancouver Victoria equal transportation costs,

so we have to compete with them.

And then you've got Australia coming into these also.

The only market that the United States

has a transportation advantage on is Mexico.

>>> Okay, thank you much.

Kim Anderson, Grain Marketing Specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.


>>> That'll do it for us this week.

Remember you can find us anytime at

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone!

And remember, Oklahoma agriculture starts at Sunup.

(upbeat music)


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