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E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for November 17, 2018

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Wheat rust & winter weather
  • Adding weaned calves to the herd
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Market Monitor
  • Food Whys
  • Naturally Speaking

 

Wheat rust & winter weather

>>> Hello, everyone, and welcome to Sunup.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

We're finally seeing cattle grazing on wheat

around Oklahoma, and that's where we wanna start this week

with some questions that producers have

about the crop itself, including reports about yellow wheat.

For some answers, we turn

to our extension-wheat pathologist, Bob Hunger.

>>> Over this past fall, there's been lots of reports

of yellow wheat coming in to the diagnostic lab

and to the extension specialists at OSU.

Most of that was attributed to the cold, wet soils

that we'd had because we had one

of the wettest record wettest months

in October for Oklahoma.

You have those cold, wet soils the wheat is going to yellow,

some from the cold and wet, some from the leeching

of nitrogen down below the root system.

Over the last couple weeks, we've also had some reports come

in and some photos and samples come in

that were very heavily infested with leaf rust

on the lower leaves, and that's not atypical.

We see leaf rust in the fall quite a bit in Oklahoma.

This year it came a little bit later than usual

and not quite as heavy, but we definitely are seeing some

of that in wheat in Oklahoma as well.

The rust that is there with these kind

of cold temperatures that we have,

those infected low leaves will slowly die,

and with the cold temperatures,

there won't be new infections occurring

on the emerging leaves.

Over the winter, leaf rust gets knocked back pretty hard.

The concern is that if we have a mild winter,

it could make it through the winter

and then that inoculum would be there

to start the rust infection in the spring again.

If it is real mild, the thing to start watching

for would be early stripe rust infection,

especially more in southern Oklahoma

because Texas would be much more mild

than us, and stripe rust spores could blow up from Texas.

I've seen stripe rusts as early as late February

in middle and southern Oklahoma.

Watch for that, and watch

for the leave rust would be the main things.

Like I say, typically the winters will take care of those.

We've run in the diagnostic lab probably at least a dozen

or more samples, checking just to make sure

that they were not positive for wheat streak mosaic virus,

high plains virus, or barley yellow dwarf.

None of them have been positive for that.

We even ran a few samples for soil-born mosaic virus,

and none of them were positive for any of those viruses.

But there is that concern

because we have had wheat streak fairly bad

the last couple of years.

Number of growers with the leaf rust

that we have seen are wondering if they should spray.

As I said, it usually will die out mostly

over the winter, then have to watch in the spring,

but it's more so that application of fungicide

in the spring that's much more important.

(light rock music)

 

Adding weaned calves to the herd

>>> It is a busy time of year for weaning and selling calves.

Here to talk a little bit more about it is Dave Lalman,

our extension beef-cattle specialist,

and, Dave, we wanna help people really get

off on the right foot and get set up for success,

so you have a few tips to pass along,

starting with nutrition.

>>> So they'd be common-sense things, simple things,

like once the calves are weaned, make sure

that they have a balanced nutrition program,

probably gonna wanna work with an extension educator

or a nutritionist at the company that supplies feed.

One of the things people will wanna do

is just make sure you have a balanced nutrition program,

so that the calves gain appropriately.

One thing to think about there, perhaps,

is if there gonna go to a high-nutrition program,

such as wheat pasture for example.

There's probably no need to push them hard

or try to make them gain a lot of weight

before they get turned out on wheat,

so a more moderate nutrition program

that, you know, most people are probably gonna feed a lot

of forage, maybe a little bit of a protein supplement,

vitamin, and mineral.

On the other hand, if the calves are gonna go on

to a feed yard, or something like that,

they might wanna consider a little more aggressive

weight gain and therefore more concentrate feed.

>>> [Lyndall] Well, let's talk about bunk space

and kinda what the rule of thumb is there.

>>> [Dave] Calves are gonna need adequate bunk space

if they're getting a supplement.

One and a half to two foot per animal ought

to be adequate, and then simple things

like don't feed the calves before they're all gathered.

If they're in a large pasture and it takes them awhile

to come to the truck, for example.

If you feed right away those aggressive calves are gonna

get a lot more than their portion.

>>> [Interviewer] And then what about the feed itself

and feed additives?

>>> You know one concern after weaning,

particularly if the calves are in a dry lot

or a feeding area that's concentrated with manure,

you can see a coccidiosis infection

over time and of course we just suggest that people consult

with their veterinarian so that they have a good

understanding of how to deal with that if that does,

if that problem does arise but there are feed additives

that can be incorporated into the feeding program

to help with that problem.

The three feed additives that are available

for prevention of coccydiosis

in beef calves are Deccox, Rumensin, and Bovatec.

>>> [Interviewer] Now we're just kind

of scratching the surface today.

A great resource of course is

always a local county extension office.

>>> They've got access to all this information

through our extension publications.

>>> Okay, great, thanks a lot, Dave, we'll see you again soon.

And for more information we have some links

for you on our website sunup.okstate.edu.

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> The snowstorm that we experienced at the first part

of the week was a good reminder

that hay feeding season is right here upon us

for those cow-calf operations that are going

to have to feed some supplemental forage

during the course of this winter.

One of the key questions that always arises is

how much hay do I need to feed

to a cow during the course of the winter

and therefore make the calculation as to how much hay I need

to have on hand for the entire herd.

Well, let's go through the procedure to calculate

what a cow might need.

Let's assume first of all that we're working

with spring calving cows and they weigh an average

of about 1200 pounds while they're pregnant

and they're gonna calve sometime in February and March.

A 1200 hundred pound cow, at this time of year,

can consume about 2% of her body weight in grass hay.

Now that will vary according to the quality of the hay.

If it's really poor grass hay, very low quality,

then that percentage goes down to 1.5.

If it's real high quality hay or even something

like alfalfa then it can go up to something as high

as 2.5% of her body weight, but more typical

that 2% figure is a good one to start with,

and that assumes that the hay quality is something

around 8% crude protein.

Okay, if we're getting 2% of her 1200 pound body

that she can consume every day, that's 24 pounds,

but let's remember that that's means that

that hay is 100% dry matter.

That's the using a calculation

that has no moisture involved.

Well, it's just not the case on the real world situation

as we would call it on an as fed basis.

Most grass hays will run some place around 10

to as low as 7% moisture so for this example,

let's use 8%, that it's 92% dry matter.

That means then that instead of taking out 24 pounds

of that grass hay in order to meet her needs,

now on an as fed basis, we require 26 pounds

per head per day but that still isn't the end of the story

because unfortunately, cows don't eat every ounce

of hay that we take out to them in the hay feeding pasture.

There will be some wastage and again,

it'll be quite variable depending upon the quality

of the hay and the kind of feeder that we are using

to put the big round bales in.

Hay wastage may vary as much as from a low

of about 6% to as high as 20%.

If we use in this example something kind of

in the middle there around 15%,

which I think is fairly typical, then that means that

instead of taking out the 26 pounds that we talked

about earlier, in order to again meet the needs

of the cow including the hay wastage, we're going

to take from the hay feeding or the hay storage area,

30 pounds per cow per day

that we're feeding the hay

to these cows through the course of the winter.

The other thing that changes

of course is when that cow calves,

and she becomes a lactating cow

and now her requirements go up even more,

and it would go through all of those same calculations.

We can simplify it and say it's gonna take

about 36 pounds of that same grass hay

to take care of that lactating cow

after she calves in February and March

and before spring grass starts to grow.

So, what does this mean in terms of the entire winter

and the hay needs that we need to plan on?

Generally, I would say we would expect someplace around

90 to 100 days of hay feeding.

It's gonna vary according to the weather,

the other kinds of forages and feeds that we have available,

but that might be a good starting place for a calculation.

To boil that down then, that basically means that

for that cow that's going into the winter pregnant,

that we're going to need someplace between a one and

a quarter and a one and a half tons of that grass hay

stored and available and ready to go for her this winter.

If we have a mild winter, or we have other sources

of feed available, we may use much less than that.

Unfortunately, if we have one of those

real heavy winters with lots of snow cover,

it may require even a little bit more.

But that's a place to start, to get an idea

of how much hay we need to have stored for those cows

this winter, and how much we need to take out each day

when there's snow cover on the ground,

and that's the only forage they have available.

Hope this helps you as you plan your winter feeding needs

this year, and we look forward to visiting with you

again next week on SUNUP's Cow Calf Corner.

(upbeat country music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Hello, Wes Lee here with the

weekly Mesonet weather report.

Winter made a statement this week,

with an extreme cold front.

The entire Great Plains dropped

dramatically into freezing conditions.

Oklahoma had minimum lows drop to around 25 degrees

below normal for this time of year on November the 10th.

Temperatures remained low until returning

to more normal conditions later in the week.

The coldest day of the week was Tuesday,

when morning temperatures reached single digits

in the panhandle and upper northwest.

Eva reached the state's lowest temperature,

dropping to a mere seven degrees.

All 120 Mesonet sites dropped

below freezing on this morning.

Strong north winds, coupled with these temperatures,

made wind chills even more brutal.

Here we see minimum wind chills on Tuesday morning

were zero or below at 12 Mesonet sites.

Beaver was as low as a negative five degrees.

Wind chills even reached single digits

as far southeast as Fittstown in Pontotoc County.

The cattle comfort index shows that they had to endure

even worse conditions on Tuesday morning.

The negative numbers of the index

over much of the northwestern half of the state

put cattle in the cold danger category.

Even the warmest station, at Broken Bow,

was still in the cold caution range.

Gary is up next with more information

on this near record breaking cold front.

>>> Thanks Wes, and good morning everyone,

to this last Mesonet weather report before Thanksgiving.

And as usual, we have some good news and some bad news.

So let's get right to it.

Well the good news is, the state remains mostly

drought-free, 98 percent of the state, in fact.

The bad news, that two percent of the state in drought

has been there for several weeks.

In fact, it's been there for

several months, up in northeast Oklahoma.

And that area has remained unchanged, for the most part.

If we look at the percent of normal rainfall map

for the last 30 days, we can actually see a

few reasons for concern, especially up in north central

Oklahoma, where those percentage of normals

are down into the 20 to 30 percent range,

and dip to 40 to 50 percent range,

extending down into central Oklahoma,

and also over to Osage County, where that drought persists.

So again, an area of concern that we're gonna watch.

And I certainly don't need to

tell anyone that we've been cold.

In fact, we've been January-style cold

over the last week or so.

We can look at the hours below

freezing from Oklahoma Mesonet.

We're gonna skip the 32 degree mark,

and go straight to 28 degrees and 24 degrees.

Again, this is from the Oklahoma Mesonet over the last week.

We can see southeast Oklahoma below 28 degrees,

about an hour or so, extending up into central Oklahoma,

we get up into the 40 to 50 hour mark.

And then up above 60 hours in the Oklahoma panhandle.

Drop that mark down four degrees, so the hours below

24 degrees, southeast Oklahoma escaped that

really frigid air, but we go from five to 10 hours

down in parts of southeast Oklahoma up to 30 hours

in central Oklahoma, and then the same, about,

up into north central Oklahoma,

but we do see a few 35s, a few 36s,

all the way up to 42 in northern Osage County.

So, lots of really frigid weather for this time of year.

It's a little bit unusual to be that cold

for that long of a period this time of the year.

We usually see that as we get into December, January.

Allergy sufferers, of course, are very happy to see that,

others not so much.

That's it for this time.

We'll see ya next time on the Mesonet Weather Report.

(upbeat country music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> It's that part of the show where we catch up

with Kim Anderson and talk about the wheat markets.

Kim, has there been any news in the markets?

>>> Mostly the news is in the world market.

Of course, they're talking about Russian wheat production,

but not necessarily this year's production.

I think it's pretty much stable

at around 2.6 billion bushels.

There was one analyst came out this year,

and they think that Russian wheat production

has peaked out and will probably back off 2 or 3%

as they bring in other crops along with wheat.

The question is, is this at 2 or 3% off of 3.1 billion

or 2 or 3% off of 2.6 billion?

An interesting deal is the Iraqis tendered

for 475,000 tons

of wheat this week.

Their bids...

I think they took one around $7.35 a bushel,

cost and freight.

That poured in at Saudi Arabia.

You can compare that to $7 in mid-July.

Lastly, Iraq announced that

they wanted to look at buying wheat from Russia.

You can get concerned about that,

another Russian market there,

but Russia's topped out on exporting their wheat.

They export all the wheat they produce.

It's just which countries are gonna get it.

So, I think that'll have zero impact on our price.

>>> To dig a little bit deeper into that, you said tender.

How does that work?

Does the country say, we want wheat

and put it out to bid?

How does that work?

>>> That's exactly how they do it.

Each of 'em, they said we want to buy 475,000 metric tons,

delivered on such and such period.

And then countries...

Not countries but companies,

Cargill and other large,

ADM, other large countries said,

deal both in United States.

They deal in Argentina, they deal in Australia,

they deal out of even Russia.

They'll make offers to the Saudis

based on a certain protein meeting their contract specs

originating at a certain country.

Then the Saudis select that offer that they feel best with.

>>> So, it's not a company

in a country saying,

hey, I need this kind of wheat,

it's actually the country, the kingdom, the collective?

>>> Well, they could be a flour miller

in a country like Mexico.

One or several flour mills may get together

and tender for a certain amount of wheat to come in,

but if it's Egypt or if it's Saudi Arabia

or a country like that,

then it is the government buying agency

that tenders for that week.

>>> To bring that back stateside,

is there any news in the wheat world going on?

>>> If you look at what's going on the wheat market here,

they're mostly talking about plantings.

All winter wheat plantings were reported 89%.

The average is about 94.

Kansas at 90; average is 98.

Oklahoma is 84; the average is 85,

so Oklahoma's way behind.

And they're talking about...

I was talking to some producers this week

about their late planted wheat.

I think they feel better for the harvest only wheat.

With the late planted wheat, their talk is that

wheat that was planted early, that's for harvest only,

is overtaken with weeds, and they've got

a lot of weed problems that they've gotta take care of.

If it'll dry out and they can get this wheat in,

it's probably better off

than if they'd got it planted early.

>>> It sounds like

there are countries out there

wanting to buy wheat.

There's Oklahoma wheat being planted a little bit late.

Both of those...

Does that help the price of wheat in Oklahoma?

>>> I think that'll help the price of wheat

as we get out into June of 2019

because I think late planted wheat,

when you don't have the weed competition

for those nutrients,

you're gonna have probably a higher quality kernel,

and the market's gonna need that kernel.

We talked about that earlier, next June.

So, I think it'll help our prices if we can get it in

and get it up and harvested in good condition.

>>> Let's jump into cotton.

There's a lot of cotton still in Oklahoma.

>>> And most of that cotton's still in the fields.

You look at the average amount harvested

on this time of year.

Right now it's 31% on the average.

We're about half done or 48%.

Cotton price in Oklahoma is pretty stable.

It went up a little bit on the board,

but Oklahoma hadn't seen much of that price increase.

I don't see much reason for it to go up or down

'cause I think the world pretty much has an idea

of what our cotton production's gonna be.

>>> Okay, thank you much.

Kim Anderson, great marketing specialist here

at Oklahoma State University.

(upbeat music)

 

Food Whys

>>> With Thanksgiving right around the corner,

it's time to talk turkey, and we're here with Darren Scott,

a food scientist at the Food and AG Product Center

and this time of year we have our Thanksgiving dinner,

and then almost immediately need to take a nap.

Does turkey really make us sleepy?

>>> Well you know that's kind of a little bit of a rumor

or misnomer, you know it's not really the turkey

that makes us sleepy, it's well,

it's reputed to be the tryptophan that's there,

but you know there's really not that much more

tryptophan in turkey than there is in other poultry,

sort of like chicken.

Approximately a quarter of a gram per 100 gram of poultry.

>>> So, you would have to eat a lot

for turkey to specifically…

>>> Quite a bit

>>> To make you sleepy.

>>> Exactly, exactly.

You know, you find tryptophan in other foods.

Well tryptophan is an essential amino acid

which just means it's a nutrient

that we can't normally produce in our body

so we have to get it from the food that we eat.

And so we find tryptophan in things like red meat,

almonds, chocolate, soy, and some nuts.

And so what you find is that it's this combination

of carbohydrates that we eat along with the tryptophan

is sort of the current thinking

that causes us to get sleepy.

We eat lots of yams, desserts, you know,

things with lots of sugar and carbohydrates in them

during the holidays.

And so this combination of turkey,

along with these carbohydrates as we digest them,

what happens is we indirectly influence the amount

of serotonin that we have in our brains,

and the serotonin actually gets metabolized

into melatonin and it's the melatonin

that we think actually makes us drowsy.

>>> And then does that make you hungry like two hours later

eating all of that stuff in combination,

because that seems to be my habit.

>>> That does me too.

(laughing)

>>> Now in terms, you mentioned amino acids and tryptophan,

what else is that sort of composed of

from a scientific point of view?

>>> Okay, alright.

You know, essentially you know, proteins are made

of amino acids and the tryptophan is an amino acid

and what we find is in our foods, you know,

we have these carbohydrates, these fats,

these proteins, all these things in combination

that you know are part of a good meal that we metabolize.

And so they all help us make us full

and they all help us make us what, healthy.

>>> Okay.

And it all just kind of blends together to make

for an enjoyable, I guess, Thanksgiving and all of that.

>>> Exactly.

>>> Okay, a great lesson on turkey.

It doesn't necessarily make you sleepy,

it's all the other stuff.

>>> Not necessarily.

I'd say all the other stuff in combination.

>>> Okay, thanks for clearing up the myths.

Darren Scott here at the Food and Ag Product Center.

(upbeat music)

 

Naturally Speaking

>>> Managing for White Tail Deer is an objective

of a lot of land owners in Oklahoma,

and many of these landowners have oak forest

on their property, but the vast majority of these oak forest

are completely unmanaged.

So the landowner might put a food plot in

or manage their grazing, but then the forest itself

is usually an afterthought.

And this is unfortunate because if you have a forest

on your property, that's probably the acreage

that you could do the most benefit for White Tail Deer.

So for White Tail Deer, the bulk of their annual diet

are forbs, these are broad leaf herbaceous plants,

things like sunflower.

They also eat a lot of vines and shrubs,

a brow species that are in the understory.

So in a forest, the whole trick to increase

the carrying capacity, the amount of food

that's in that understory is to get more sunlight

on the forest floor.

So if that's your objective,

there's multiple ways you can do this.

We could just mechanically cut a tree,

and that's often done particularly if you want

to regenerate a forest, if you want that tree

to actually re-sprout because remember the vast majority

of the woody plants in Oklahoma will re-sprout

if you cut them.

However, a lot of these plants, especially the oak,

they're not palatable to deer.

So in those situations we may just wanna kill

that plant to make room for more desirable species.

So if that's the case, there's multiple ways we can do that.

You can cut the tree off at the base,

and them immediately spray the cambium,

that's that outer part, that growing part,

the inner bark of the tree.

And you need to do that within about 15 minutes

before the cambium seals up.

And there's multiple herbicides that are effective

at killing a tree in this way.

We can also girdle the tree and some people will want

to just girdle without spraying herbicide.

That can kill the tree, but often it will take a long time

to kill the tree by girdling alone.

So by adding herbicide to the girdle,

you can effectively remove that tree rapidly

from the system.

Another way is to simply take a hatchet

and a spray bottle and make hatchet marks

into the cambium of the tree and spray a herbicide.

And if you're using herbicide like Imazapyr,

this can actually be much quicker,

because you don't have to put very much herbicide

in the tree.

With Imazapyr you can simply put one hatchet mark

for every three to four inches of DBH,

that's diameter at breast height.

So if you'll measure the tree off

and see how far across the tree measures, the diameter,

and then divide that by three or four,

then that's how many hatchet marks

you wanna put in the tree.

Additionally, you may just want to provide cover for deer.

So instead of cutting the tree down flush with the ground,

sometimes we'll do what's called a hinge cut.

We're gonna cut it off about breast height

and we're just gonna start cutting from one side

so that the tree will slowly start to fall the opposite way

and as that tree starts to fall just stop cutting

and let the tree slowly break over, but not a clean break.

So you want that tree, on the case of a hinge cut,

to stay connected to the root.

So if this is something that interests you

and you want specific recommendations for your property,

contact the Oklahoma Forestry Services

or the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation

to get them to come out

and provide you some technical guidance.

 

>>> That'll do it for us this time.

Remember you can find us anytime at sunup.okstate.edu

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

From all of us at SUNUP, we wanna wish you

and your family a very safe and happy Thanksgiving.

And we'll see you next time.

(upbeat music) 

 

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