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SUNUP TV 
141 Agriculture North
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

Phone: (405) 744-4065
FAX: (405) 744-5738
E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for November 3, 2018

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Soil layers & water moves through them
  • Vet Script
  • Wheat Update & upcoming webinar
  • Market Monitor
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Eastern red cedar & watershed
  • Cow-Calf Corner

(upbeat music)

 

Soil layers & water moves through them

>>> Hello everyone, and welcome to Sunup.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

With above average rainfall in Oklahoma,

it's natural to think the soil would be full of water.

But we wanted to know what's really

going on below the surface.

For an eye-opening demonstration,

here's Sunup's Dave Deken, and our extension's

soil and water conservation specialist, Jason Warren.

>>> From time to time on field days,

you may see a pit, open like this,

with a demonstration going on,

but Jason, you had an opportunity to

use these pits as a teaching opportunity.

>>> Certainly, last week we hosted the regional

soil judging contest, for college students

from the southern central plains.

So we had Arkansas, University of, and Texas Tech,

and Texas A&M, and Kingsville A&M, and Tarleton,

and they came here to hone their skills,

and then compete in their skills

on describing the soil profile.

>>> Why is Oklahoma such a great

opportunity for a judging like that?

>>> Yeah, well Oklahoma's very diverse in its soils.

Here, we're in the rolling red prairies, kind of a

cross-timber type region is the eco-region we're in.

And so, you can dig a pit here,

and you can see very different soils,

and you can go 100 yards away and dig another pit

and you might have completely different soils.

And so, these kids can come in here and hone their skills

and train themselves to be soil scientists

such as the NRCS, and there's a lot of other activities,

like wastewater management type things,

where it's important to know what the soil characteristics

are with respect to water movement,

not only for crop production, for urban

and residential construction, it's very important

to know what kind of soil we have.

>>> So since we have the pit open, this was a great

opportunity to kinda show our viewers

what actually consists in the soil.

What do we have here?

>>> Yeah, well, you know, we hear a lot about soil health,

and managing soils to improve soil productivity,

but there's a lot of things in this profile

that tell us the potential productivity for the soil.

And so what we like to see is a nice, dark-colored soil

with organic matter in the surface,

and the deeper that is, the better.

Those deep soils with dark colors,

they're what we call mollisols,

and they were formed under grassland,

is what most of Oklahoma was at one time.

And then, below that, you'll,

so then that's the surface arisen,

and it's usually granular, and it breaks apart real easy,

kinda like cookie crumbs is what we'd say.

And then below that, you're typically gonna pick up

a little more clay, and you can see,

you have more angular characteristics of that

clod, or ped, is what we call it.

And that's important because that clay,

it can hold a lot of water, it can hold a lot of nutrients,

but you want that structural character

where it breaks apart, that way as it dries,

it kinda shrinks and forms pore space,

the water can flow down into it and saturate the profile.

And so it's fascinating, guys think,

well, you know, a couple inches, that's a lot of rain.

But if you go through a July and August

where we have little rain and it's very hot,

and you go out into a field and the grass is turning brown

due to drought, and you get two inches of rain,

in a soil like this, that two inches will only fill

the top two feet of this soil.

In contrast, if you're in a sandy soil,

it may only hold an inch.

And so, when we look at soil water management,

soil dynamics, it's very important to understand

how these soils are built, and to protect

that surface aggregation and structure,

to where water can move in them readily,

especially on these heavier clay loams and loams,

and then the sands, water moves right through them,

but it can't hold it much.

>>> So if a producer doesn't have that

beautiful topsoil that everybody wants,

is there anything that they can do to help create that?

>>> Yeah, just be thoughtful about your tillage.

If we can move into no-till systems,

we can start to get some of that back.

I mean, even there, it's a challenge to get it back

to the original grassland system,

but we can bring back a lot of those

characteristics through no-till management.

If no-till's not, if it's something that you don't feel

you're ready for, or you don't wanna mess with,

one thing to think about is how much tillage you're doing.

You know, we till a lot to control weeds.

If we can incorporate some herbicide weed management

with tillage, to reduce the number of passes,

because every pass with the tillage implement

is gonna decompose that organic matter more rapidly,

and what we wanna do is sustain as much organic matter

in that soil as possible, in that surface.

That's what gives it a lot of that characteristics,

and the microbial activity, and so,

we wanna be able to maximize the number of days,

whether it's green cover, or residue cover.

And minimize the rate

of organic matter decomposition,

and there's a lot of ways to do that,

depending on where you're at,

and what your production system is.

But, that's how we get that back.

>>> Okay, thank you much Jason Warren,

soil extension specialist here

at Oklahoma State University, and for more information

on that, go to our website, sunup.okstate.edu.

(soft acoustic guitar music)

 

Vet Script

>>> One of the problems that we see

in calves that are weaned, is coccidiosis.

Now, coccidiosis is a protozoan parasite

that infects the digestive tracts of animals.

It is very species-specific,

so I can remember getting calls from people

asking if my dog has infected my calf with coccidiosis.

Now, if a calf has coccidiosis it comes from a cow.

If it's any of the other animals

it will come from them specifically.

Typically, we see coccidiosis following

a stressful event, such as weaning,

or if we change the feed, or if we

maybe transport these cattle some distance,

we'll typically see this disease break.

These cattle are infected with the osis or eggs.

These eggs are passed through the fecal material

of not only sick animals, but also healthy animals.

So, it is going to be in the environment where you are.

Typically, cattle ingest it, and depending upon

how many of those eggs they ingest,

will influence the severity of the disease.

If they ingest a lot, they're gonna get a lot

sicker than those that just ingest a few.

Clinical signs of this disease are usually

diarrhea with or without blood.

Now milder forms you may not even notice the disease.

But you do have some production problems

like you're gonna have lower weight gains.

In the severe diseases with a lot of diarrhea,

a secondary problem on occasion

is you will get prolapsed rectums.

When we treat this disease, we normally use

a sulfur drug or amprolium, but what we need

to keep in mind though is that when we treat

those severely infected animals,

we have to realize that most of the animals

that are with that group are probably

gonna be infected, so we need to do something

for them also, like put a coccidiostat

in the water, or in the feed,

and that we usually keep the disease in check.

If you'd like some more information

about coccidiosis in cattle,

if you'll go to sunup.okstate.edu.

 

Wheat Update & upcoming webinar

>>> We're joined now by department head, Jeff Edwards,

for an update on Oklahoma's wheat crop.

Jeff, kind of an interesting couple of months

for Oklahoma wheat producers.

Give us an idea of how they're doing

with the last few weeks of planting now.

>>> Yeah, well there has been no planting

the last couple of weeks, that's just the issue.

We really have a big window there.

We got quite a bit of wheat in in September.

We had optimal soil conditions,

quite a bit of moisture to grow that wheat pasture.

That wheat has set roots and I expect that we'll see

a lot of cattle going out on

wheat pastures for whenever it dries

out here over the next week or so.

I also think that we're going to see a lot

of drills running in the field.

I think state-wide we're probably about,

somewhere around 60%, maybe 2/3 planted.

In some areas of the state though, that's as little

as 30%, so we've got a lot

of people wanting to play catch-up

on this wheat crop in the ground.

>>> We talked about that pretty big gap

of when planting started and kind of where we are now.

For those who are just able to get into the field,

what kind of guidance do you have for them?

>>> Well, we're in the first of November now,

and it's time to up those seeding rates.

Generally, in mid-October, we would

say optimal seeding rate is about 60 pounds,

or a bushel per acre.

What we're going to have, generally,

with a later planted wheat crop,

is less tillering, so the way we compensate for that

is by increasing our seeding rate.

As we move into the first of November,

I would like to see those seeding rates

bumped up to around 90 pounds per acre.

As we move into mid November, if we're still planting,

I would bump it up to around two bushels per acre,

especially if you're north of Highway 51.

The farther north we go, the more important it is to bump

those seeding rates up.

>>> With this rain, obviously we see some beautiful

green fields, but that also means

there may be more pressure from weeds, talk about that.

>>> Yeah, we've got some weeds coming up,

and ya know I'm a big fan of the Barney Fife method.

Nip it, nip it, nip it!

We've got to control those weeds early.

We do not want to let those weeds take

any yield away from us, go out there and inspect

those fields, make sure you know what weeds

are present, you know how to control them,

and make sure that all of the weeds are up,

and go ahead and take those control measures.

Fortunately, we've got a great weed scientist

named Dr. Manuchehri, and you can lookup

her information on the internet,

and she can tell you how to control those weeds.

>>> Some people have mentioned some issues with yellow weed.

Explain that.

There's not too much to worry about though, right?

>>> Not too much to worry about right now.

A couple of things have caused yellow weed across the state,

and it all relates back to water.

The amount of rainfall that we've had,

a lot of that nitrogen is moved deeper into the profile

and also if you have standing water,

it can create soil conditions where there's no oxygen,

and the wheat will just turn yellow from that.

It should grow out of it.

Dr. Arnell tells me that we may be able to access

some of that nitrogen later in the season,

depending on how deeply that it's moved into the profile.

I think he would tell everyone to go ahead

and put out a nitrogen rich strip

so you know how much nitrogen you need later in the year.

And now is the time to get that done.

>>> We mentioned putting cattle on wheat

briefly for those producers who are gonna graze livestock.

What we're seeing seems like pretty good quality,

just from the casual observer.

>>> We have, you know, we had moisture early.

The wheat, we've been a little cool.

But we've still had a lot of growth on wheat pasture.

What we've been lacking are just dry conditions.

You get those cattle out there packing around a lot of mud,

it really affects the gain.

So hopefully we'll dry out, but not too dry.

>>> Exactly.

Well no doubt, you and your colleagues

are gonna talk about all of this and much more

at an upcoming webinar with a special name.

Give us a little perspective.

>>> The wheat-inar.

We did a few of these back in the spring,

just kind of giving an update.

We're using ZOOM, and it's a great way for us

to be able to get a lot of experts in one place.

Our wheat-inar for this fall will be November 16 at 8:30.

I would encourage people who haven't used ZOOM before

to maybe get on 10 or 15 minutes early.

You may have to download something,

but it's really straightforward technology.

It's a great opportunity to ask questions

and figure out exactly what the wheat crop looks like

in the entire region, not just one state.

>>> Okay, thanks for letting us know about it.

And if you are interested in that upcoming wheat-inar

on November 16, we have a link for you at sunup.okstate.edu.

(guitar strumming)

 

Market Monitor

>>> Wheat harvest in the northern hemisphere

is all wrapped up.

So Kim, what's happening down south?

>>> Well, you look at the southern hemisphere,

you're lookin', well probably less than 10%

of the world's wheat production.

The important countries as far as exports go,

in competition in Argentina and Australia.

Argentina's crop's about 34% above average

and around 2.7% of the world's wheat crop.

Australia's is 25% below average

and about 2.5% of the world's wheat crop.

But if you look at the hard wheat producers,

it's a much higher percentage,

and they're extremely important

as far as exporting hard red winter wheat

or hard wheats and competing with the flour milling market.

>>> What's happening in the export markets?

>>> Well, if you look at the export markets,

the United States, all wheat's about 16% below average.

Hard red winter wheat export sales are 35% below average,

so it's going south this year as far as exports.

Of course, our price reflects that.

Who's controlling the market?

Right now, all eyes are on Russia.

Russia's front loading their export sales and shipments,

and they're controlling the export market

and prices right now.

>>> So how long do you think it's gonna take

for Russia to run out of that exportable wheat?

>>> Well, if you look at their marketing year,

it's July 1 through June 20.

And since July 1 through, oh, late October,

they had exported around 614 million bushels.

That's around 48% of their projected exports this year.

At that rate, they will have all of that wheat exported

by mid to late February.

>>> It's been reported that Egypt bought some U.S. wheat.

Can you give us the rundown on that?

>>> Well, those reports are a little iffy there, you know.

It was first reported that U.S. was selected

to sell two cargoes, 60,000 metric tons,

2.2 million each cargo.

Then it was reported that Egypt bought one cargo

of U.S. wheat, but Russia may undercut that

with lower transportation costs.

Then this week, it was reported

that we may have sold another cargo to Egypt,

so it's kind of iffy.

The way the price has been reacted,

I say that we lost that sale because prices have went down

and prices aren't going up like we got another sale.

And the final thing on that is U.S. wheat

was soft red winter wheat, not hard red winter wheat.

Russia's supposedly sold 'em 12.5% protein hard red wheat.

>>> So with producers having all this wheat in storage,

should they sell it, what should they do?

>>> Well, that's a question

because if Russia's running out of wheat,

if they're front loading everything

and we get out to that January, February time period

and it looks, the good news on the Egyptian deal

is that the market is at least looking at U.S. wheat now

that we almost got a sale, or we maybe got a sale in there.

So we're becoming competitive.

So, I think that's good news.

And, if we can start moving out exports

and we had above expectations of sales this last week,

then I think we can see prices moving up.

If I can't afford another 40 or 50 cent lower price,

I'm going to sell some wheat.

If I can afford that risk on the price,

then I'm probably going to store it and see what happens

as I get out into the November, December,

maybe even January time period.

>>> Alrighty, thanks Kim.

Kim Anderson, grain marketing specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

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Mesonet Weather

>>> Hello, Wesley here, with your weekly

Mesonet weather report.

The Oklahoma Mesonet system has 120 automated towers.

There is at least one in each of the 77 counties.

Occasionally, a tower has to be relocated

due to various reasons.

This past week, a new Mesonet site was commissioned

for Seminole county.

It is named Seminole with the abbreviation SEMI.

This tower replaced the Bow Legs tower,

that was removed due to trees encroaching upon the site.

What conditions continue to be an issue

for Oklahoma farmers.

We had a few good days of drying early in the week,

but rain came back to the southern half

of the state on Wednesday.

Stations like Granfield, Centrahoma, and McAllister

each recorded nearly an inch.

Thousands of acres of cotton are ready to be harvested

in southwest Oklahoma.

There was some concern as the temperatures cooled off

toward the end of the season.

If we compare degree days at Altus for 2018 versus 2017,

we see that the higher than normal temperatures

early on more than compensated

for the late season cool temperatures.

The six month totals for 2018 finished 476 degree days

higher than 2017, which had a near record crop yield.

Bowls are opening, now we just need

some good harvesting conditions.

Now, here's Gary with a summary of October's weather.

>>> Thanks, Wes, and good morning everyone.

Well, October's in the books,

and it's another wet and cool month across the state.

Certainly did wonders for relieving drought

and keeping drought from developing.

And, it looks like maybe the same is coming for November.

So, let's get straight to the new drought monitor report

and see what we have.

Well, we have the same picture as last week.

Still, the only remaining area of trouble

in the state is up in northeast Oklahoma,

where those deficits continue.

Those go all the way back to last year at this time.

So, that's the one remaining area of the state

that really needs rainfall.

As we look back at October rainfall,

from Oklahoma Mesonet we can see massive amounts

of rainfall across western Oklahoma

and also south central Oklahoma, but really all

across the state, save for parts of central

and up into northeastern Oklahoma,

had generous rainfall amounts for October.

We go for the departure from normal map,

and we can also see, again, large areas

of large surpluses across most of the state.

Now, the good news comes from the November outlooks

from the Climate Prediction Center.

We see greatly increased odds of below normal temperatures,

especially across the eastern portions of the state.

The far western panhandle we still see

those equal chances for above, below,

or near normal conditions.

For precipitation, again, increased odds

for above normal precipitation across the entire state.

So, those two conditions together,

those two outlooks, if they do come to fruition,

we won't see any more drought developing

like we did last year.

And, the drought outlook for November confirms that.

In fact, it has the drought being removed across

northeast Oklahoma, just that little spot left.

So, that would certainly be good news

for the state of Oklahoma.

Now, those outlooks don't say anything

about snowfall or really what type

of precipitation to expect.

But, in Oklahoma, I think it's safe

to say, expect anything.

That's it for this time,

we'll see you next time on the Mesonet weather report.

(upbeat music)

 

Eastern red cedar & watershed

>>> To the prairie now, where Sunup videographer

Ed Barron covers a joint study between the USDA

and Oklahoma State University,

and learns how eastern red cedar trees can

impact the watershed.

>>> [Rodney] Well, eastern red cedar encroachment

into grasslands is a huge issue in Oklahoma

in the great plains.

And, one of the big impacts is that red cedar

uses more water than its native rangeland,

which means there's less water available

for agriculture and other uses.

We've been researching what happens

when you cut down red cedar and plant switch grass

in terms of productivity and then

also water yield to streams.

We're conducting the research at the watershed scale.

>>> Watershed is a pretty standard approach

in understanding the water yield

or the runoff in a given landscape.

So the watershed, it is basically,

if you have a location such as here, this low point,

that means more water from that given location

will eventually come to this point to be able to quantify

how many water coming out of this watershed.

>>> [Edd] But how much water

does a red cedar tree actually use?

>>> It's a really tough question

because it depends on tree size,

the amount of leaf area, how wet the soil water is.

We did some calculations and a big cedar

on a really wet soil period with a hot, dry, long day,

it can use up to 50 gallons.

>>> Of course, it depend the size of cedar,

depend on whether it's a stand alone

or it is growing in a woodland.

It also depend whether there's water

available for the cedar tree to use.

So on average, a cedar tree for this site in particular

with dead material before the tree was cut,

they use somewhere around five, six gallon per day.

Before the treatment,

the runoff from these basin watersheds are pretty small

and after we cut the cedar,

the runoff increased about 300%.

>>> [Edd] And all that water

could be going to places that really need it.

>>> The runoff from this landscape are limited;

however, those runoff are important for stream

or for reservoir because we human need this water.

And also wildlife, fish, they need this water.

This encroachment by eastern cedar

result in reduction of the runoff.

We may have less water available

for human use or for wildlife.

>>> I guess what it emphasizes is for societal benefit,

getting rid of red cedar in the landscape

will increase water yield to streams.

That's important for all Oklahomans

who take advantage of water that flows through streams

and eventually into reservoirs.

In terms of, say, cattle production,

when you look at the native prairie,

you can see the forage production

that would happen with no intervention

and then, obviously, the ability to plant native grasses

is there as well.

>>> [Edd] In Payne County, I'm Edd Beran.

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Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Recently, I took a trip up through northeast Oklahoma

and into southwest Kansas

and noticed a lot of fall calving cows

with new, fresh, vigorous baby calves at side.

These cows look to be in good body condition

and we would expect them to be after a pretty good summer

that we've had and going into the fall season.

We know that it's important for ranchers

with fall calving cows to maintain that body condition

on those cows into and through the breeding season.

You see, there's research done here a number of years ago

at Oklahoma State University

where they looked at the impact of losing body condition

between calving and the start of the breeding season

as compared to cows that just maintain that body condition

in that same period of time.

What they had was cows that were in a body condition

of about a 5.5.

Half of them, they fed to maintain that body condition

going into the upcoming breeding season.

The other half were allowed

to lose nearly one full body condition score

before the start of the breeding season.

As they checked the pregnancy rates

at the conclusion of that breeding season,

they found a 21% difference.

The cows that maintained body condition

into the breeding season re-bred at a 94% rate.

Those that were allowed to lose a full body condition

and went into the breeding season at a midpoint four,

those cows re-bred at a 73% rate.

That's a substantial difference

and is really going to affect the bottom line

the following year when we go to sell those calves.

We know that these cows, say they're 1100 pounds

after they've calved,

nursing that calf, are going to need

about two-and-a-half pounds of protein every day.

Well, if they're grazing

some of this very mature Bermuda grass or native grass,

a warm season pasture in other words,

or they're consuming grass hay,

they're probably going to get about one pound

of that two-and-a-half that they need from forages.

So we have to supply the other pound-and-a-half

with supplements.

So that means that if we are going to put out

a high-protein supplement such as a 40,

then it's gonna take about three-and-three-quarters pounds

per head per day to meet that need for those cows

in order to maintain that body condition.

If we're using something that's a little lower in protein,

say one of the blends that has 30% crude protein in it,

then we have to bump that up to about five pounds

per head per day so that we can maintain that body condition

and have those cows recycling and re-breeding

at a high rate this upcoming breeding season.

Let's keep the body condition on them

between now and the start of the breeding season.

We'll be glad next year when calving season rolls around

and we have a real high percentage

of those cows bred and calving on time.

Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again

next week on Sunup's Cow-Calf Corner.

 

>>> Thanks so much for joining us this week.

Remember, you can find us anytime on our website

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Have a great week everyone

and remember, Oklahoma agriculture starts at Sunup.

(laid back music)

 

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