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E-mail: sunup@okstate.edu

 

 

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Transcript for July 14, 2018

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments: 

  • Cotton Update
  • Market Monitor
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Types of nitrogen fertilizer
  • Chigger prevention
  • Livestock marketing
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Pasture Rehab - Forage test results are in!

 

(upbeat guitar music)

 

Cotton Update

>>> Hello everyone, and welcome to SUNUP.

I'm Lyndall Stout.

Our focus this week turns to Oklahoma's cotton crop.

SUNUP's Dave Deken travels to Jackson County

to catch up with our Extension Cotton Specialist, Seth Byrd.

>>> So right now in mid-July, a lot of the crop is starting

to get to the blooming stage,

at least the part of the crop

that's made its progress on a normal pattern.

We've had some challenges

here in Southwest Oklahoma this year;

a very dry, very hot, very windy start to the season.

We're in a field right now that's drip-irrigated cotton

that was planted in the first half of May.

A lot of that cotton has had some challenges,

but has come out pretty well.

This field is just starting in its bloom stage,

it's probably been blooming

for maybe a week or a little more.

And that's kind of where

we like to see cotton right now, in Oklahoma.

>>> I realize that with cotton

there's kind of touch and go

whenever it came to planting dates and everything.

Kind of talk about what you've seen

with the earlier-planted varieties,

versus some of the ones that were later-planted.

>>> So the earlier-planted varieties,

we really didn't have a really good green light

to say these conditions are perfect to plant.

Some of this was planted in marginal conditions,

but it turned out okay.

We caught some rain in mid-May,

and it really helped this cotton come up

and turn the corner.

Later cotton, particularly in May, and even in early June,

was planted into pretty good moisture.

Unfortunately, it was followed up

by the worst case scenario.

We went through a two-week period

of several days that were over 100,

and winds that just dried that soil profile out,

especially that seedbed.

A lot of the seed had enough moisture

when we planted the sprout, to germinate.

Germination wasn't the problem, it was emergence.

A lot of those fields were re-planted

and they actually got some irrigation water

here in the district turned on early.

Other areas, if you have a pivot

or another form of irrigation like drip,

you can kind of help that out.

I focused a lot of it so far on the southwest corner.

As we move north and east,

sort of the Carnegie-Fort Cobb area, hydro area,

there's some really good-looking cotton up there,

even the dryland up there looks really good.

They haven't been necessarily wet,

but they've caught enough rain

to put that cotton in a good position.

And then as we go further north into the state,

you get a little more hit and miss.

It's been a dry year overall for Oklahoma,

so dryland cotton as a whole has struggled,

but we've got good pockets of it.

>>> Moving forward, what are some of the things

that producers need to be watching for,

but also keep on their radar

to be doing throughout the year?

>>> So, I'll be scouting for weeds this time of year,

get that one last shot on.

This is an extremely clean field that we're in right now.

>>> [Dave] Right, right.

>>> [Seth] But obviously if you've got some escape,

some of your earlier applications, be watching that.

Same thing with insects, again, be scouting.

And then as we get into this stage, squaring,

we're putting on flower buds

or actually blooming and starting to set bowls,

our water demand is gonna go up.

We need to make sure that we're

following that plant's demand curve

with adequate irrigation, if we are irrigated.

Obviously if we're dryland,

then we're just up to whatever nature throws at us

and we just hope we catch a rain or two.

Cotton is definitely on a bell-shaped curve for water

and we're on the increase right now.

We're gonna keep increasing that demand up to peak bloom,

and then it's gonna start to fall off a little bit.

As much as we can match that water use curve

without exceeding it or getting to a deficit,

that's gonna really optimize not only our inputs,

but optimize our yield.

>>> Okay.

Thank you much, Seth Byrd, Extension Cotton Specialist

here at Oklahoma State University.

And for more information about growing cotton in Oklahoma,

check out our website, SUNUP.OKSTATE.EDU.

(upbeat guitar music)

 

Market Monitor

>>> Kim Anderson, our Crop Marketing Specialist, is here now.

Kim, the USDA released the July WASDE,

what's the take-home message?

>>> Well there's not much change in the market

from last month, except maybe in soybeans.

You look at wheat-ending stocks;

increased them to 975 million bushels,

a 25 million bushel increase,

74 million above last year's levels so not much there.

Corn production, they increased 14.2 billion bushels up

from 14 billion.

That could be significant; however,

with exports and such,

they lowered corn-ending stocks just slightly

from 1.58 billion down to 1.55.

But you look at soybean production,

4.31 billion bushels up from 4.28 last month,

exports.

This is the number down to 2 billion bushels,

down from a 2.3 billion bushel estimate last month,

and I think that reflects our negotiations.

Any stocks with beans from 385 million bushels

up to 580.

And they lowered the average annual estimated

or projected soybean price 75 cents down to

nine and a quarter.

>>> Now the 2018-19 wheat marketing year

is getting into its seventh week, and exports

are quite a bit lower, give us an idea of why.

>>> Well you look at all wheat exports, export sales,

they're down 30 percent from last year.

Hard red winter wheat sales are down 50 percent.

Now, if you go back to this time last year,

we were expecting our projecting our wheat production to be

2.5 billion bushels, they came in at 3.1 billion

You look at their unit stalks, it's 376 million

versus the 280 million average.

Russia came in with that 3.1 billion bushel,

record crop, and took exports away from the US,

away from Canada, away from Australia, and they still

have wheat export during this time period, and therefore,

they're taking our market, and we have a lower price.

>>> Give us an idea of why Oklahoma prices have dropped

a dollar since June.

>>> Well you look at that dollar drop,

I think it's our production.

Half of all crops for Oklahoma,

you look at all hard red winter wheat around 657 billion

versus the 830 billion average is almost 100 million

less than last year, you'd think that prices would stay up.

However, our protein is the highest in 20 years,

and we've got the test way to go with it.

We've got an excess of wheat in storage,

that is relatively low protein.

They can take this high-protein crop,

blend it into that lower protein, get that average up,

and they are effectively increasing the exportable

and milling supply of hard red winter wheat.

Therefore, we have lower prices.

>>> With that in mind, should producers sell their

stored wheat?

>>> A third, a third, and a third

if they've already sold some,

then I'd hold it off a while longer.

If they haven't sold any, dollar cost average you know

I'd start working it in the market between now,

and say January 1st.

>>> And put the pencil to paper.

>>> Put the pencil to paper.

>>> Thanks a lot Kim, we'll see you next time.

(lighthearted guitar music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> Hi, I'm Wes Lee, here with your weekly Mesonet

weather report.

With summer temperatures firmly locked

in the 90's and low 100's, it's hard to believe

that now is the time to begin planning

in the backyard garden for a fall crop.

One of the biggest obstacles to overcome

can be dealing with high soil temperatures.

Garden seeds have an optimal soil temperature,

but also a maximum temperature

for which they will germinate.

For many, this maximum is around 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

Maximum bare soil temperatures at a four inch depth

on July 9th range from 89 degrees at Wilburton and Valliant

to 107 at Madison Park near Velma.

If we look at a specific location, such as Bristow,

we see the incredible warm temperatures for May

and early June.

The blue fill line is the long-term average air temperature,

while the red line is the average air temperature

recorded in 2018.

If we switch over to soil temperatures at Bristow,

we see a very similar trend.

The brown fill line is the long-term average

four inch soil temperature while the orange line

is the actual soil temperature for 2018.

Temperatures are now above the 90 degree limit

for many seeds, and a temporary cooling

of the soil may ne necessary for proper germination.

A local extension educator can give you some ideas on

how to accomplish this.

Gary is up next with some changes

in the state's drought situation.

>>> Thanks Wes, and good morning to everyone.

Well the good news is the trend for drought

across Western Oklahoma is on the way down,

at least for now.

But the trend across Eastern Oklahoma is on the way up.

And also, Southern Oklahoma.

So these are areas we're gonna have to watch.

Let's get right to the latest drought on the map and see

what we have.

Okay, still some of those bad colors, the tans,

the browns, the reds across Western Oklahoma

and into the far western panhandle,

but we actually see some areas devoid of color in

Beaver, Harper, and Woods counties.

That's the good news.

We also have that area white, which means no abnormally

dry conditions even,

in central over into east-central Oklahoma.

However, we also see an increase in the bad colors across

the eastern parts of the state, especially northeastern

and Southeast Oklahoma, where we have severe droughts

starting to intensify, especially in the far Southeast

and the extreme Northeast.

We can see all these on the 30, 60, 90 day

percent of normal rainfall map on Oklahoma Mesonet.

Basically on these maps, the greens and the blues,

those are the good colors.

The reds, the yellows, the oranges,

those are the bad colors.

And you can see, especially along the red river,

way too many of those bad colors,

but across Northwest Oklahoma, those are the good colors.

Those are the above normal rainfall amounts.

That's where we're seeing that drought reduction

across the state.

Now and note of caution, even those areas

of Northwest Oklahoma are in danger of drought development.

We are in the hottest part of the year.

It's tough to get rain this time of the year.

So while we're glad to see those colors

start to disappear, those are also unfortunately areas

we're gonna have to watch for drought development

in the heat of summer.

So that's it for this time, we'll see you next time

on the Mesonet Weather Report.

(happy country music)

 

Types of nitrogen fertilizer

>>> Of the central nutrients,

nitrogen is the most commonly applied.

We have several source options when it comes to both

homeowners and Ag producers.

And there's often several questions when it comes to what,

what are the different sources and what are the importance

in the different characteristics.

So one of the most commonly sold sources

of nitrogen in Oklahoma is Anhydrous ammonia.

Anhydrous ammonia is a gas form, with 82% nitrogen

for every pound, so every 100 pounds of anhydrous ammonia,

we're going to have 82 pounds of nitrogen.

It goes in the soil as a gas, and it immediately

reacts with H20.

Any water into the soil and it's going to form NH4,

and hold onto the soil particle.

Then we have urea.

Urea is our number two and sometimes number one

fertilizer source, it is by far the greatest dry source.

Urea is 46% nitrogen.

It's popular because A, it has the highest concentration

of nitrogen of a dry product, and it's fairly safe.

So urea comes in with (NH2)2CO.

It's applied in the soil.

It gets wet, urease, an enzyme is going to act upon

these particles right here, break off the CO,

and go NH2and turn that into NH3.

Which then reacts with water and goes to NH4.

The challenge with urea falls with very safe

and easy to store dry product.

If urea is not incorporated into the soil via tillage

or irrigation, there's high probability

that with a little bit of moisture, this NH3

can actually be lost in the environment.

So in agriculture and other aspects,

we're always concerned about nitrogen losses,

from the application of urea,

if we don't get a good incorporation.

Another less common source of nitrogen

is the ammonium sulfate, and this is commonly applied

with urea when there's a sulfur demand.

Why is it not just applied solely?

Because there's only 21% nitrogen.

However ammonium sulfate is a very stable source,

but it has the highest acidifying reaction rate

as compared to any other nitrogen source,

because our source for ammonium sulfate,

when we apply it directly as a ammonium,

goes back to our acidifying factors,

and ammonium converts and releases more hydrogen

than any other of these sources that start out

as a NH3.

So our most acidifying fertilizer for nitrogen

is ammonium sulfate.

There are also other sources, such as UAN.

So UAN stands for urea ammonium nitrate.

UAN is a liquid fertilizer source.

So it comes in as either a 32% nitrogen,

or 28% nitrogen with no other nutrients.

We'll often use them as top dress,

or sprayed on as top dress,

or injected into the soil.

It is half urea, half ammonium nitrate,

blended in and watered down.

These are our primary nitrogen containing fertilizers

that we would use across Oklahoma in agriculture

and in the garden.

If you have any other questions about nitrogen,

check out the SUNUP website at www.sunup.okstate.edu.

(happy country music)

 

Chigger prevention

>>> Mosquitoes and ticks aren't the only pests

that we have worry about this summer.

If you're out in the tall grass, or a pasture,

you may just pick up some microscopic hitchhikers.

Yes, we're talking about chiggers.

Here's extension entomologist, Eric Rebek.

>>> So chiggers are a family of mites

that belong to the family Trombiculidae,

and we have a couple of species in North America

that can cause us some problems.

Chiggers feed in their larval state by injecting

a digestive toxin under the skin,

and then they feed on the dead skin cells

that result from that activity.

Chiggers are non-burrowing mites.

And so they'll take that meal of dead skin cells

and then they'll immediately drop off

to continue their life cycle.

Later stages of the nymph, will not feed

on animals anymore and neither will the adults.

So it's really just this first larval stage

of the mites that do their feeding.

Usually environments such as this

is where we are going to pick up chiggers,

areas where we have long grass, tall grass.

They do tend to clump together

so it's not as if this entire field's infested

but we do have a tendency sometimes to walk

into a patch of these mites.

So protecting yourself with long pants,

ideally with grass this tall,

I'd be wanting to wear long sleeves as well.

And then having an insect repellent,

products containing 15-20% DEET would be best

or eucalyptus oil is another option.

And so these are the best things we can do

to try to prevent access of the mites to our skin.

Yes, so the bite itself, first of all,

our skin reacts to that digestive enzyme

and so you get that reaction, it's both a physical

or a mechanical and a chemical reaction essentially.

Then we also get basically a dermatitis.

You get an allergic reaction, if you will, to that bite,

so your body's immune response to the bite.

All of these things together cause our skin to react

and form a welt,

a large, painful, itchy, red, swelling of that area.

What we recommend is if you have encountered chiggers,

and you are experiencing some bites,

as soon as possible, go home and wash all of your clothes

that you were wearing in at least

a 125 degree Fahrenheit wash cycle.

Then as soon as possible, jump into the shower,

take a hot shower, take a hot bath,

lather up as much as possible with that soap.

Again, the mites aren't there,

but you're trying to, you're basically

reacting or trying to stave off that itching

and that burning from the bite itself.

(country western music)

 

Livestock Marketing

>>> Trade in the agricultural world is big news right now

and Derrell, how is supply and demand

in the beef market going so far?

>>> Well if you look at the first half of the year,

I think we're kind of as expected at this point,

supply is bigger.

You know actually, carcass weights, which are up this year

over last year are not up as much, we're watching that

in the second half of the year,

but I think it's going to tamper our increase

in beef production a little bit.

You know drought conditions had us very concerned

a couple of months ago, we've moderated a bunch of that.

In the southern plains, we still have some drought

conditions farther in the southwest.

But in terms of beef market impacts much less

potential for impact.

Through the first half of the year,

I think we're in pretty good shape.

Demand has been pretty good so far this year.

>>> So as the recent trade data, is it any encouraging at all?

>>> Well again, the trade data runs about two months behind.

So the latest data for the month of May

for beef was extremely positive.

We had about a 21% increase on a year over year basis

for the month of May.

We were up in most of our major markets.

Pork and poultry a little bit less encouraging

in that respect, but the beef trade

has been very very good so far this year.

>>> So the trade we're in right now is just really big news.

How might that affect beef markets in the coming months?

>>> Well it's very difficult to sort all that out.

It's a very complex situation.

There's a lot of dimensions.

You know beef is directly targeted

in a couple of the tariffs, Canada and China.

But really the greater potential for impact

is gonna be in the indirect and secondary impacts.

If we have huge impacts on the pork market,

we've got record pork supplies.

That could weigh on the domestic market,

and that in turn could affect beef markets.

Consumers are gonna see higher prices

for some goods if these tariffs stay in place

for any length of time.

Over time that may actually have a negative impact

on beef demand as consumers are forced to reallocate

their spending a little bit.

Our import tariffs on steel are actually raising input costs

for farm equipment manufacturing and other inputs.

So there's a host of things that could play out here.

It will take some time, but over time we could see

accumulating effects of all of this.

>>> So switching gears a little bit,

you recently led a group of Oklahoma cattlemen to Mexico.

Talk a little bit about that experience

and what they got to experience.

>>> You know, we had a very enjoyable

and very educational trip, I think.

The group got to see how cattle get across

in terms of cattle that are exported

from Mexico to the US, and then we traveled

to a ranch in northern Chihuahua.

Late June in northern Mexico is about the driest

time of the year, so it really illustrated

the challenges that those producers face

at this time of the year.

And we had a very productive final dinner

with some cattlemen in Chihuahua

that was a very good conversation of cattlemen to cattlemen.

>>> And again it's always good to share that information

between cattleman to cattleman as well.

>>> Absolutely.

>>> Alright, thanks Derrel.

Derrel Peel, livestock marketing specialist

at Oklahoma State University.

(happy country music)

 

Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Here in the haying season,

we wanna remember

that putting up hay is an expensive proposition.

And we want to save as much hay as possible

to have available to feed the cows next winter.

Therefore hay storage is a very, very important

part of the management of getting the hay up

and ready to feed the cows.

Research has been done at several universities

looking at different storage methods

of big round bales, and how much hay loss actually occurs.

In Tennessee, several years ago,

they found that big round bales in their environment

stored on the ground, with no cover on them,

lost 37% of the dry matter of weight

between the time of the hay being harvested,

and when it was fed in January.

That's a huge loss.

Even with net wrap, they found 19% loss in that time frame.

Now, research here in Oklahoma,

in a somewhat dryer climate,

still has shown us that hay that's been stored

on the ground with no cover over it,

we could expect about a 20% dry matter loss

in the time between when we harvest it,

and when we feed it next winter.

If we can find something like, say old car tires,

wood palettes, anything to get this hay

up off of the ground, it'd make a huge difference.

In the research here, it reduced the hay loss

about half, in other words 10% hay loss.

If that hay was stored off of the ground,

and with some kind of a cover,

a plastic tarp or a canvas tarp,

then that hay loss dropped to about 4%.

And so we've got a tremendous difference here

in the amount of hay that potentially we can lose,

in the time between it's harvested and when it's fed,

just by the way we store it.

Also, the way that we orient these bales,

if we're gonna store them for a long period of time,

is pretty important.

We want to orient the rows going north and south.

That way the prevailing winds will be able

to go between the rows and help keep that hay dry.

Also, we'd like to give about two to three feet area

between the rows.

Again, that allows for air movement and helps to dry out

that area between the bales.

These things can all help us in terms of

saving the hay that we put up this summer,

so there's more of it, and a little higher quality hay

available to feed next winter

when our cows really need it.

Hey, we hope you'll tune in again next week

on Sunup's Cow-Calf Corner.

(happy country music)

 

Pasture Rehab – Forage test results are in!

>>> For the past few months we've been talking with

Alex Rocateli about a pasture rehabilitation project.

And this week, the results are in.

>>> So we are here back in the pasture rehab location,

after the first cut.

And as you can see, we really got a good productions here.

According to the history that we have here,

this year we more than doubled the production.

The reasons are first, mother nature.

We get a good rainfall during the green period,

until the first cut, about eight inches of rain.

At the top of that, second, we fertilized it.

We put around 150 pounds of urea.

That translates about seven pounds of nitrogen,

actual nitrogen, and as we know the rule of thumb,

for every 50 pounds of nitrogen,

we are gonna promote one ton of production, per acre,

in Bermuda grass pastures.

Now, that would explain why we doubled the production,

however, we more than doubled the production.

And the reason for that might be weed control.

So in the end, we got around 115 bales, five by five bales

that weighed around 100,000 pounds in a total of 30 acres.

That translates in total production of

a little more than two tons per acre.

For the location that we are, in a pasture

that we are trying to rehab, that is a very good production.

On the other hand, when we talk about quality,

well, the overall quality of this pasture was fair.

A crude protein around 7.5, 7.8 across all the field,

in a TDN of 58%, so that is what we call

a fair hay quality.

However, when we talk about growing steers

or heifer calves we might need to supplement,

if you wanna use this hay for them.

About that region headed there,

northeast portion of this pasture,

we have a higher concentration of Johnson grass.

And the quality there was light higher.

We are talk about 9.3 in crude protein,

and 59 in TDN.

When things get right, as this year we have good rainfall,

we didn't have a dry period,

we can have from Johnson grass good forage quality.

Without the nitrate toxicities.

For instance, we just get about 1,000 ppm of nitrates

in the Johnson grass here.

That is very low, we need at least 3,000

for this a start to be toxic to the animals.

Thanks to the good rainfall that we have.

The main reason that we didn't get better quality

from this pasture is not related to the pasture at all,

but was related to the timing of cut.

We delay to cut this Bermuda grass pasture.

We cut 11 weeks after it start growing.

That is too much.

We're supposed to be cutting for crude protein

of 13, 14% between five to six weeks.

That would be the target time.

So, in the second cut, next time,

we were gonna try to be a little earlier in the cut.

>>> And that'll do it for us this time,

Remember you can find us any time at our website

and also follow us on YouTube and social media.

I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone,

and remember Oklahoma agriculture starts at Sunup.

(gentle music)

 

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