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Transcript for April 15, 2017

Transcript to come.

This show includes the following segments:

  • Scout for diseases now
  • Cow-Calf Corner
  • Feed requirements for cattle
  • Mesonet Weather
  • Market Monitor
  • Natural Speaking: Turkey habitat and Research in the wilderness

 

 (upbeat music) 

 

Scout for diseases now

>>> Hello everyone and welcome to SUNUP, I'm Lyndall Stout.

 We begin this week in one of the winter wheat research fields at OSU

and we're joined by our Extension Wheat Pathologist Bob Hunger.

 Bob, give us an idea of what you and the team are studying out here and what specifically is going on today.

>>> Well Lyndall, these are the wheat foliar fungicide trial that I conduct each year

and so we have replications of different fungicide treatments, in here there's a total of 16 of em plus an unsprayed control

so we were able to compare the ethicacy of those fungicides in controlling the different foliar disease that come on wheat like powdery mildew, stripe rust, and leaf rust.

>>> And specifically what is your research team doing today?

>>> Today they're putting on the primary application of fungicide.

 Some of the treatments have a double application.

 We put on some fungicide back in early March when the wheat was quite short about grow state six or seven

where it's just starting to till or just starting to joint well

and then now the primary application is going on, the heads are fully emerged and the wheat disease is starting to come in here as it is across the state.

>>> What will you do with the data once it's all gathered?

>>> Well, once we harvest this trial

then we'll have the results showing us how the fungicides affected not only disease severity such as powdery mildew and leaf rust

but also then how the yields were affected

and also the quality, the 1,000 kernel weight and the test weight of the grains.

 This is shared with the growers and the extension people so that they can help make recommendations as to which fungicides would perhaps be the best to use.

 It also gives us the information to show how important fungicides are to improve not only the yield of wheat but also the quality of the grain.

>>> What kinds of disease questions are you getting right now and what are you seeing around the state?

>>> Well it was relatively quiet for diseases early

because we were so dry for quite some time, over the last couple weeks now.

Ex specialty for the last 10 days with the coming of the rains and so what

Leaf rust particular has really start to show across the state have not seen a lot

Here yet in this trial but I'm suspecting it will come.

 We were lucky, fortunate that we missed out on stripe rust infection

because there just wasn't much inoculant to the south of us to come up

and then we didn't have the right kind of weather when there was enough inoculant.

 Not enough moisture, so there's been no stripe rust.

 Powdery mildew has come in on the lower levels, lower leaf canopy has been hit pretty hard with that.

 And then in no-till fields, we've seen a fair amount of tan spot and Septoria that are coming on but again,

a lot of this is because of the moisture that's come in the last 10 days.

>>> Are you seeing some wheat streak mosaic virus as well?

>>> Yes, that's the other thing that has come into the diagnostic lab.

 I think over the last two weeks we've gotten at least 10 or 12 samples that have all tested positive for wheat streak mosaic virus which

is one of the viruses that's transmitted by the wheat curl mite.

 There's been some of that and there's also been barley yellow dwarf

which has surprised me some because it didn't seem to me that over fall and winter

there were that many aphids around but in some fields we're getting a lot of positives of barley yellow dwarf as well.

>>> Any treatment options at this stage?

The wheat's getting pretty far along.

>>> Well, of course for the foliar diseases,

that's part of what this research is about is to demonstrate how important it is to use foliar fungicides especially if you have a susceptible variety such

as was planted in this trial here.

 So you can use the foliar fungicides for those diseases.

 For the wheat streak and the barley yellow dwarf at this point,

there's not much that can be done because once those infections are there, there's

nothing you can do as a curative for those diseases but especially for the wheat strand,

it comes down to being a good neighbor, controlling volunteer wheat in the fall

so that you don't have the build-up of the mites that carry the virus into a neighbor's field

or one of your own fields to result in the wheat streak mosaic virus in the spring.

>>> This is an overview today, but you have some materials that go a little bit more in depth that we can share with our viewers?

>>> Oh yeah, there's, there is definitely a fact sheet on wheat curl mite transmitted viruses that I'll make available to you on your link.

>>> Okay, Bob, thanks a lot.

>>> You bet.

>>> And for a link to that fact sheet that Bob just mentioned, go to sunup.okstate.edu.

 

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Cow-Calf Corner

>>> Those cow calf producers in Oklahoma or the southern plains that have fall calving herds

 traditionally have weaned the calves when those calves were nine, nine and half months of age.

 That often occurs sometime in early July.

  We may want to consider alternative weaning dates depending upon our situation.

 With that thought in mind,

research here has been done at Oklahoma State University just a few years ago

looking at alternative weaning dates for fall calving herds.

 What they did over a four year period of time

was half of the cows had the calves weaned at a typical seven, seven and a half months of age, or mid April.

  And compared those to their counterparts that had the calves weaned at about 10 months of age, in early July.

  And then followed those cows through to look at the re-breeding performance of the cows

as well as the weaning weights and the sale weights of their calves.

 First of all as you would expect when you look at the weaning weights,

there's a substantial difference because those calves are considerably older.

 In fact the difference was over 200 pounds.

 The calves weaned in July at about 646 pounds compared to 438 pounds for their counterparts that were weaned in mid April.

 Now the calves that were weaned in mid April,

 if they were allowed to just go out on good native grass and continue to grow until the normal sale time in July,

they caught up but not entirely.

 They were about 35 pounds lighter than the calves that stayed on the cows until mid July.

 So there's a little bit of loss in weight if we do wean earlier.

 Looking at the re-breeding performance of the cows is another key question.

 What they found was there was a difference in terms of the effect of early weaning on young cows compared to mature cows.

 Cows that were two and three years of age, there was improved re-breeding performance if the calves were weaned in mid April.

 The difference was about nine percent.

 Cows that were mature, those that were four years of age or older,

there was no advantage in terms of re-breeding performance of those cows by having the calves weaned earlier.

 So what we can conclude from this particular data set

that if we have for the most part mature cows, that our in good body condition  and the grass conditions are good this particular spring and summer,

there's no advantage to that April weaning for mature cows.

 If we have some thin, younger cows, some of those that are two and three years of age

and we're concerned about their body condition at this time of the year,

then going ahead in weaning their calves at mid April may be the best bet.

 Because we'll pick up a substantial amount in terms of re-breeding performance on those thin cows.

 Certainly it's a decision that we have to look at perhaps each year according to the conditions that we have in our pastures

as well as the cow condition of the different ages of cows in our herds.

 Hey, we look forward to visiting with you again next week on Sunup's Cow Calf Corner.

 

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 Feed requirements for cattle

>>> The seasons are changing and so are the feed requirements for cattle.

 Dave let's talk about where we're at and where we're gonna go with the feed requirements for cattle.

>>> Winter feeding season is at an end thankfully.

 The grass is greening up so people will transition

or maybe already have transitioned from a winter feeding program that might include some hay here late in the winter.

 Most of the winter since last fall they've probably been providing some supplement.

 In that supplementation program

that's probably provided vitamin A which is really critical as well as some phosphorus, calcium, a little bit of potassium

and then the trace minerals that you think about cattle need to reproduce and maintain a strong immune system.

 That's gonna stop now that winter feeding is over so from here on out,

the mineral feeder is probably gonna need to provide in many cases or in most cases those nutrients.

 So it's a matter of managing a mineral program now for the rest of the summer.

>>> [David] And since the first of the year, there has been some changes in what we can actually put in the mineral feeder.

>>> [Dave] That's a good point.

 The new Veterinary Feed Directive has changed things a little bit.

  So the primary concern here in Oklahoma this time of year is going to be a risk of Anaplasmosis.

  And so producers need to work with their veterinarian

 to determine if they should be or want to,  choose to,

include an antibiotic in their mineral supplement.

 And that is possible.

 But now, that those rules have changed,

you have to have basically permission, 

and fill out a form, 

which is this Veterinary Feed Directive form to be able to do that.

>>> In the past, it was a little bit for the whole herd,

but now, it's more selective about how you administer it?

>>> Well, I mean it was over the counter.

>>> Right.

 Yeah.

>>> In the past .

 It was over the counter, and no longer is it available over the counter.

 You just have to work with your veterinarian,

and if your veterinarian and you together decide that's a wise thing to do in your situation,

then you look into the options to get that accomplished.

>>> What are some other nutritional things that producers need to be thinking about as we do transition into Spring and on into Summer?

>>> Well, I mean as far as the,

well hopefully the cows are at this point in time in good enough body condition going into the breeding season,

you know the calving is probably about over in many herds.

>>> Right.

>>> And so, that point at which body conditions scores most important is calving time.

 So hopefully, they are all ready in you know,

moderate body condition what we consider body condition score five, which is average.

 They're mature cows, and they like to have the heifer cows in six.

 So the key is from here until the day you begin the breeding season,

is not to let them lose a lot of ground, not to let them lose a lot of weight and condition.

>>> And we've been fortunate with a fairly good Winter with the green up and all that,

but moving forward we're probably not going to have that same lush forage.

>>> No, I mean it always starts out green and lush,

and then as it matures, you know quality goes down.

 But, the tricky part of all that David, this time of year,

is not letting them slip, while you know, there is a little bit of green grass out here, but there's not a lot.

 And so the cows are excited about running around, not running,

but go around grazing those lush blades of grass,

and it's hard for them to meet their dry matter requirements this early.

 Now, as it grows, and it sort of catches up to the cattle,

and passes them, as far as forage availability,

they'll be able to get a full, you know a fill of high quality forage.

 So, the challenge this time of year, is not letting them slip,

and lose weight,

because they don't get enough of that high quality forage to eat,

so that's why maybe extending your supplementation program a little bit longer,

even though you think you see a lot of green grass is probably a good idea.

>>> So, it's good to have that, a little bit of overlap in between there.

>>> Yeah, it's good to have that overlap.

>>> Okay, thank you much, Dave Lawman, Beef Cattle Specialist here in Oklahoma State University.

 

(guitar music)

 

Mesonet Weather

>>> The feel that Spring has arrived comes differently to different people.

 To a gardener, Spring is the blooming of garden flowers.

 To a forester, Spring is when tree canopies have filled with new green leaves.

 To a farmer, Spring means corn is up and growing.

 To a meteorologist, the feel of Spring is when dew points start climbing.

 Wednesday morning, dew point temperatures bumped up into the low Sixties

across southern Oklahoma,

and morning dew points were in the high Fifties at many locations in central and northern Oklahoma.

 The dew point temperature change from Tuesday morning was dramatic.

 Across southern and central parts of the state many dew point temperatures were 18 to 20 degrees higher

 in the 24 hours between Tuesday and Wednesday mornings.

 For plant pathologists,

Springs arrival means: an increasing chance for disease problems.

 On Wednesday,

the very first pecan scab infection hour was recorded in Oklahoma at Hugo.

 Infection hours require warm humid conditions.

 Soils are warming: on Wednesday, seven locations had three day, four inch, bare soil temperature averages

at or above 70 degrees: Tipton, Waurika, Ringling, Ardmore, Burneyville, Ada and Bowlegs.

 Only four sites had three day soil temperature averages in the Fifties

and those were sites in the panhandle.

 Here's Gary with a look at drought conditions and our water year so far.

>>> Thanks Allen, good morning everyone.

 Well, last week I promised you more improvements on the drought monitor this week.

 And sure enough, those came through.

 Let's take a look at the latest map and see what we have.

So much of Northwestern Oklahoma has now been improved to either abnormally dry conditions or moderate drought conditions.

 Now, that's a great improvement from the extreme drought we saw in the panhandle

and also the severe drought that we saw over much of that part of the state.

 Now, we still have drought going strong in Eastern Oklahoma,

and in some cases, possibly, even intensifying.

 But for now it's a much better map than what we've seen in the last few weeks.

 And hopefully, we can get some more rain and then continue those improvements.

 Two of the things we're dealing with are the discrepancies between the long-term rainfall and those deficits,

versus the short-term rainfall that we've seen over the last couple of weeks.

 If we look at the 30-day percentage of normal rainfall map, this is for March 13th through April 11th.

 We do see much of the Northwestern half of the state,

at least, 120% to,

even in cases of more than 200% above normal for that timeframe.

 That's significant because we are getting into the wet part of the season.

 This goes back to October 1st through the present timeframe.

 We see deficits from Central Oklahoma all the way across much of Eastern Oklahoma,

but also a near normal to deficit conditions across Northwestern Oklahoma.

 So as we try to put together those two different rainfall accounts,

 that's how we come up with the latest drought monitor map.

 And we also use help from our experts in the field,

so from those local county offices we love to get input from those folks,

to tell us exactly what's going on out in their part of Oklahoma.

So as I said, all we need is more rainfall to reinforce the improvements that we've seen recently.

 And hopefully, we can continue to wipe out the bad colors on that map.

 That's it for this time.

 We'll see you next time on the Mesonet Weather Report.

 (guitar music) 

 

Market Monitor

>>> Kim Anderson, our crop marketing specialist is here now.

 Kim, some good and bad news this week.

 Let's start with the bad news and the update on 2017 production.

>>> Well, the worst news has got to be wheat stocks.

 You look at U.S. projected any stocks the highest since 1987, of course,

record world-ending stocks projected

It'll be the fourth year in a row that we've had those.

 And then I think it's bad news that we've got moisture in the hard red winter wheat area

and the U.S. winter wheat area and around the world.

 And you know, rain makes grain and if we have another record world crop,

then we're gonna have continued low prices.

>>> Please offer me some good news now, lift our spirits a little bit.

>>> Well, I think the good news is, is we're having a really good export demand for our hard red winter wheat.

 Our export sells this mark in year over twice of what they were last year.

 And we got the lowest planted acres year, depending on which way you look at it.

 If you're looking at Oklahoma, it's back into 1962.

 If you're looking at Kansas, you're back in the 1907.

 If you're looking at U.S. winter wheat, you're about 1909.

 But the point is, is that we've got really low or much lower planted acres, I think that's good news.

 That's gonna restrict some of our production.

 And the other is, is that the market needs good milling quality wheat,

and so, if we can produce some wheat with test weight and protein,

there's gonna be demand for it.

 And I that's gonna help our prices.

>>> How's the corn situation?

>>> The corn's just like wheat, we've got record world stocks.

 We got the highest ending stocks in the United States since 1987.

 But, however, they're talking about four million less planted acres.

 And with the lower planted acres, and, say, trend yields,

you're looking at the corn stocks remaining about the same as they are this year,

which means not much change in corn prices.

>>> With all this mind, what's the market offering then?

>>> Well, if you look at wheat off that KC July contract, it's around $4.40.

 And the basis in Oklahoma runs from a -$90 to -$.70 And let's just use the -$.80, that'll give a forward contract price for harvest delivery about $3.60.

 Corn bid off that December contract and it's around $3.95, $4.00.

  Now, the basis for corn if you go to the panhandle area, it's a + $.15 If you go in parts of Oklahoma, it's down to a -$.85.

  In parts of Central Oklahoma, it's a -$.15.

 So let's just use that + $.15, you get $4.10 in the panhandle and a -$.60 you get $3.35 in around Oklahoma.

  Sorghum, now that's a pretty steady basis throughout the state,

around a -$.85, and so that'll give a forward contract price for sorghum, around $3.10.

  Canola, most areas are around $6.30 right now.

>>> And last, but not least, what do you think prices are gonna do from here?

>>> Well, if you look at wheat,

one analyst is saying that wheat prices will probably go down in the harvest and then increase as we go into the fall and winter time period.

 That's a possibility.

 I think we're at low now, and I think prices are gonna hang around this area as we get into harvest if we have a good quality product,

 I think they'll increase.

 We can forward contract for right around $3.60 now.

 I think we'll get them closer to $4 if we have some good wheat to sell.

>>> Okay.

 Kim Anderson, thanks a lot.

 We'll see you next week.

 

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Natural Speaking: Turkey habitat and Research in the wilderness

>>> Talking turkey now, and the research project that takes us to Western Oklahoma.

 Here's SunUp's Kurtis Hair.

>>> [Kurtis] It's the end of the trapping day at Packsaddle wildlife management area.

 Maybe tomorrow will be better.

 Oklahoma State University graduate student, Ali Rakowski is trapping wild turkeys for research.

 Although Ali and wildlife technicians Megan Vae and Drake Hardman

haven't had much luck the past few weeks.

 There's a more pressing issue for the evening.

>>> [Woman] You want carrot cake over chocolate cake? 

>>> [Curtis] While many young adults are out enjoying the nightlife,

on a Thursday,

this group is enjoying cake night in one of the most remote areas in Oklahoma.

>>> Sometimes it gets rough being so far away from civilization.

 But sometimes, it's really nice.

 It's quieter.

 You can see the stars.

>>> I'm from the capital city of Wisconsin, so I'm used to being in a place that's got 300,000 or 400,000 people.

 Now I'm kind of out in the middle of nowhere.

 But, I enjoy it.

>>> We've got some cake!

>>> Yeah!

>>> [Curtis] Cake night is reserved for only special occasions at the bunkhouse.

 They're celebrating one of the last nights at Pax Huddle for a Quail Technician.

>>> So, we're kind of getting cake because I'm going to leave on Sunday.

 And, we had dinner today because

I had an interview this morning and I wanted cake, to reward myself, for my interview.

>>> [Curtis] Allie will split her time between Stillwater and Ellis County until the summer,

when she'll be at the reserve full time.

 Megan and Drake will work at Pax Huddle for six months.

>>> The reason I took this job is because I wanted wildlife family experience.

 I've only held, like a duck and small mammals before.

 So, getting to wrangle a turkey was pretty awesome.

>>> [Curtis] Working with wildlife does have it's rainy days.

>>> I've been pooped on by a common loon,

a mallard, a goose,  a black duck,  a wood duck,  a lesser scaup, a greater scaup, a canvasback, a ring-necked duck, a quail and a turkey.

>>> [Megan] Wow! 

>>> [Curtis] Morning arrives quickly.

 After setting up traps before sunrise,

there's just enough time to get a bite for breakfast

and to fill in some letters on a crossword,

before heading back out and checking traps.

>>> We kind of have two different aspects, we're taking a look at,

the impact of human disturbance on wild turkeys out here.

 And we're also taking a look at some of the thermal ecology,

kind of determining where turkeys are spending the heat of the day

and what might describe that location.

>>> So, when it reaches a certain temperature, animals have to make a decision.

 Do I continue staying out foraging?

Or, do I go to shade, to stay cool?

This presents, kind of, trade offs.

 When it's really hot early in the day,

then that really can limit how much foraging opportunity there is for an animal.

 But also, if there's not adequate cool refuge for that animal to seek out,

they all of a sudden large parts of the landscape just aren't occupied by that animal anymore.

>>> [Curtis] Extension Wildlife Specialist, Dwayne Elmore has been advising Allie on her turkey research for about a year and a half.

 After a turkey is trapped, a GPS transmitter safely attached to the bird to track it's movements.

>>> We're seeing that some of these isolated tree patches are very important through large parts of the day, in the summer.

 Some of these areas, the land owner might be making a decision,

do I remove these trees or do I retain these trees?

So, we're trying to provide some guidance, how many trees do you actually need

and still have turkeys on your property?

>>> [Curtis] Today is the last day for trapping before turkey season kicks into gear.

 So far, they've had no luck.

>>> [Allie] Definitely just passed out most promising trap.

>>> [Curtis] The day wasn't a total loss.

 Although the turkeys are a couple hundred yards away,

the site is refreshing.

 Allie, Megan, and Drake will pick back up on their research at the beginning of May.

 In Ellis County, I'm Curtis Herrick.

 

(guitar music) 

 

>>> Chinnery Oak occurs in a pretty small part of the country.

 It's in Western Oklahoma,

throughout the Texas panhandle and in Eastern New Mexico.

 It's a low growing clonal oak.

  So, it typically stays less than waist tall.

 It's an important wildlife plant, so there's a lot of conservation values, especially for bobwhite and wild turkey.

 It produces a very large acorn, but they usually don't persist for very long, into the fall.

 Wildlife and insects consume them.

 Then when it leafs out, later on in the spring,

it has a very irregular, jagged, leaf margin.

  It's slightly glossy and dark green.

 This plant is highly adaptive to fire.

 When it's burned, it resprouts rapidly from the routes and within two or three years,

the plant is back to the structure it was before the fire took place.

 So, in addition to providing acorns, for food, a lot of birds actually eat the catkins off of these oak.

 And particularly, they use it for cover.

 Both for cover from predation, but also for thermal cover, to shield them from the mid-day sun.

 A land owner might have an interest in trying to get chinnery back on the landscape,

for the cover it provides and also the food resources it provides.

 So, we're hoping to be able to provide some best management practices to landowners in the future.

 But right now, we really are kind of at ground zero.

 We really don't know how to grow it.

 So, last year we started with collecting hundreds of acorns

and we're experimenting with different stratifications

and different light levels to see how we can best grown these in greenhouses to transplant them back into the sandy soils.

 If a landowner wants to do chinnari restoration, how can they go about that?

So, we're partnering with the Forest Research Station in Idabel, through OSU,

to learn about acorn germination and survival, rhizome survival, and then also about transplanting it back into these sandy soils.

 

(guitar music) 

 

>>> Thanks so much for joining us this week for Sunup.

 Remember, you can find us anytime on our website, at sunup.okstate.edu, and also follow us on youtube and social media.

 I'm Lyndall Stout, have a great week everyone and remember Oklahoma agriculture starts at sunup.

  

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